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Supply Side of the Labour Market Curaçao : Labour Force Survey 2016

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Supply Side of the Labour Market Curaçao : Labour Force Survey 2016

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ako
arbeidskrachtenonderzoek
unemployment
employment
labour
werkgelegenheid
werkenden
werkloosheidpercentage
werkloosheid

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Central Bureau of Statistics Curaçao
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Supply Side of the Labour Market of Curaao: Labour Force Survey 2016 Irlice Jansen, MSc.

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Central Bureau of Statistics A ddress: WTC Building, Piscadera Bay z/n (first floor) 2300 Email: info@cbs.cw Website: www.cbs.cw Facebook : cbscur Copyright Willemstad, Central Bureau of Statistics 201 7 The contents of this publication may be quoted, provided that the source is mentioned accurately and clearly. ISBN: 978 9904 5 053 8

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LFS Cura ao 2016 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 201 7 3 Preface Since 1987, t he Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) has been conducting Labour Force Survey (LFS) in Curaao annually to provide reliable statistical information on the supply side of the labour market. Today, a variety of data on the employed, unemployed, and the economically not active population is being collected during the LFS. Developments on the labour force are not stationary. The si ze of the labour force may increase decrease or remain unchanged. This depends on several factors. Some examples of factors th at can affect the labour force are demographic factors, the number of available jobs and development s of the economy. It is unknown whether the labour force in Cura ao fluctuates within a year. Therefore, for the first time, two LFS were carried out in 2016 to get insight in developments within one year A survey was conducted in the first half of the year (March April; LFS 2016 1), while the other survey was conducted in the second half of the year (September October; LFS 2016 2) Preliminary figures of LFS 2016 1 showed that the unemployment rate in March April 2016 remained practically unchanged in compari son to September October 2015. In this report, results of the LFS 2016 2 ( September October 2016 survey ) will be presented and compared to the results of September October LFS 2014 and 2015 The report is divided into three parts. The first part gives an i ntroduction on the topic of labour market. The second part describes the methodology, and the third part of the report covers the results of the LFS 2016 2. The CBS of Curaao hopes that this report meets the needs of users for up to date and comprehensiv e information on the supply side of the labour market and that the results will be used by stakeholders in the public as well as the private sector. A sincere word of thanks goes to the population of Curaao for their yearly cooperation and participation in the LFS. Furthermore, to the author of this publication Ir lice Jansen, MSc (senior statistician, department of Social and Demographic Statistics at CBS) and the scientific staff of the CBS for their valuable input. The Director Drs. Sean de Boer

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LFS Cura ao 2016 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 201 7 4 Explanatory notes Blank = category not applicable Total percentages in tables or figures may not necessarily add up to 100% because of rounding.

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LFS Cura ao 2016 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 201 7 5 Acknowledgments The aut hor would like to thank the head of the Fieldwork department ( Lizmari Fecunda Manuela ), the coordinator of the LFS (Mary Conquet Provence) and the 40 interviewers for their contribution in data collection; Gregory Lai and Lysandra de Meza for data management; Menno ter Bals and Leander Kuijvenhoven for the study population; Ruthmila Eisden and Filomena Valks for data coding; and the remaining colleagues in particular Ellen Maduro and Harely Martina, for their contribution and interest in the study. A special word of thanks to the following stakeholder s for their collaboration : Ministry of Social Development, Labour and Welfare (SOAW); Ministry of Education Science Culture and Sport (OWCS); Mini stry of Economic De velopment (MEO) ; Registry Office Central Bank of Curaao and St. Maarten (CBCS); Curaao Chamber of Commerce and Industry (KvK); Curaao Trade Industry and Association (VBC); Trade unions: Sentral di Sindikato nan di Krsou (SSK) and Sentral General di Trahadornan di Krsou (CGTC).

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LFS Cura ao 2016 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 201 7 7 Abbreviations AKO Arbeidskrachtenonderzoek CAPI Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing CBS Central Bureau of Statistics CSPro Census and Survey Processing System HAVO HBO ILO International Labour Organization IQR Inter quartile range ISCED International Standard Classification of Education ISCO International Standard Classification of Occupation ISIC International Standard Industrial Classification KILM Key Indicators of Labour Market LFS Labour Force Survey MAVO MBO SBO SOAW Social Developme nt, Labour, and Welfare SPSS Statistical Package for the Social Sciences VSBO VWO WO

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LFS Cura ao 2016 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 201 7 9 Summary The labour force also referred to as the economically active population, encompasses the non institutionalized employed and unemployed population aged 15 years and older In comparison to September October 2015, the labour force of Curaao increased by 7 .2% in September October 2016 reaching a level of 75,070 persons. In terms of absolute numbers, the increase in the labour force was mainly due to an increase in the employed population. However, relatively the increase can be attributed to a large increase in the share of the unemployed popu lation. The number of the employed population in September October 201 6 increased by almost 3,330 persons compared to September October 2015 ( 5 .3%). The total employed population consists of about 65,100 p ersons Of this population around 2,000 were unemployed one year before ( in September October 2015) an d about 1,050 were attending school The increment in the employed population was visible in both sexes. However, figures of the labour force survey suggest that the mut ation of the increment increased along with increase in age. For example the increase in the employed population i n the age group 55 64 years was higher (8.7%) than the increase in the employed population in the age group 35 44 years (1.6%). In September October 2016, the size of the unemployed population was 9,953 p ersons, which is 1,755 persons (21.4%) more than in September October 2015. Accordingly, t he unemployment rate increased to a level of 13.3% in September October 2016 This is 1.6 percentage points higher than in September October 2015. T he unemployment rate in 2016 increased for both sexes, where women continue d to have higher unemployment rates than men. O f the working age population (15+ years) in Curaao 59.0% was available to supply labour (labour force participation rate), while for the age group 15 6 4 years specifically, this was 70.4% In terms of age, the increase in the labour force was visible in all age groups. The largest percentage increase in the lab our force took place in the age group 15 24 years and this increase was mainly due to an increase in the un employe d population in this age group. Consequently, t he youth (15 24 years) continue d to have the highest unemployment rate in 2016 (youth unemployment rate), being 36.8 % This is an increase of 7.1 percentage point s in comparison to September October 2015, when the youth unemployment rate was 29.7%. Nevertheless when analysing the youth unemployment rate it is useful to take certain matters into account. For instance 31.6% of the unemployed youth were attending a daytime education. In other words, about

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LFS Cura ao 2016 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 201 7 10 three of every ten young persons seeking work was receiving a daytime education, which could have hampered their being completely a vailable to accept a job and actually start working. Of the employed population, the majority continued to work as employees in permanent service, 58.9 % Although the percentage is lower in comparison to September October 2015. T he greatest increase in employment continued to be for flexible economic positions, such as casual worker s /freelancer s In terms of occupation, there were no significant differences in 2016 in comparison to 2015. The most reported occupation among men continued to be 19. 8% ) and among women, 21.7 % ). The majority of employed persons in 2016 continued to work in the holesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles Of the unemployed population, the majority of the persons who were actively looking for a job have been une mployed between 1 and 12 months ( 4 5.2 % ) But a high prop ortion has also been unemployed for a year or longer ( 46.3% ) A similar situation existed in 2015. The economically not active population consisted mainly of pensioners ( 51.5% ) and students ( 23.7 % ) who wanted to finish school before moving into the labour market.

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LFS Cura ao 2016 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 201 7 11 Resmen E poblashon aktivo otro yama e poblashon ekonomikamente aktivo, ta enser personanan no insti tutionalis di 15 aa f mas ku tin trabou ( ta emple) f personanan no institutionalis di 15 aa f mas ku no tin trabou, pero ku ta buskando trabou aktivamente (ta desemple). Den komparashon ku e periodo sptmber ktober 2015, e poblashon aktivo na K rsou a krese ku 7, 2% yegando a sina na un kantidat di 75 070 persona den sptmber ktober 2016 Den termino di sifra absoluto, e kresementu di e poblashon aktivo aki ta deb na un oumento di personanan ku tin un trabou Sin embargo den termino relativo, e kresementu aki ta resultado di un oumento grandi den e porsentah e di pe rsonanan desemple E poblashon ku ta emple na Krsou den periodo di sptmber ktober 2016 a krese ku kasi 3 330 persona kompar ku e periodo sptmber ktober 2015 (5.3%). E kantidat total di personanan ku ta traha ta alrededor di 65.100 persona. Di e poblashon aki, mas o mnos 2.000 tabat a sin trabou un aa pasa (den sptmber ktober 2015) i algu mas ku 1.050 taba t a sigui un estudio E k resementu di e poblashon ku ta emple tabata notabel serka mbos sekso. Sin embar go, sifranan di e enkuesta di forsa laboral t a indik ku e grandura di e kresementu aki a o ument segun e edat t a subi. Por eh mpel, e oumento den e poblashon ku tin un trabou den e grupo di edat 55 64 aa tabat a mas grandi (8.7%) ku e oumento den e poblashon ku tin un trabou den e grupo di 35 44 aa (1.6%). Den sptmber ktober 2016, e grandura di e poblashon desemple tabata konsist di 9. 953 persona kual ta 1.755 persona (21, 4%) mas ku na sptmber ktober 2015. Konsekuentemente, e porsentahe di desempleo a subi na un nivel di 13.3% den sptmber ktober 2016. Esaki ta un subida di 1.6 punto porshento mas haltu ku na sptmber ktober 2015. E k resementu di e porsentahe di des e mpleo tambe tabata notabel serka tur dos sekso kaminda ku hende muhe r ta keda ku porsentahe di desempleo mas haltu en komparashon ku hende hmber. D i e poblashon aktivo (15+ aa) na K rsou, 59.0% tabata disponibel pa ehers labor (partisipashon riba merkado laboral), mintras e sifra aki tabata 70.4% pa e grupo di 15 64 aa spes fikamente. Pa loke ta trata edat e kresementu di e poblashon aktivo tabata notabel den tur grupo di edat. E kresementu porsentual di mas grandi a tuma luga den e grupo di 15 24 aa, i es aki tabata prinsipalmente atribu na un kresementu di personanan desemple den e grupo di edat ak. Konsekuentemente hbennan (15 24 aa) ta keda ku e porsentahe di desempleo di mas haltu den no s komunidat (desempleo hubenil) kual ta 3 6.8 % Esaki ta un subid a di 7.1 punto porshento kompar ku na sptmber ktober 2015, kaminda ku desempleo hubenil tabata 29.7%. Sin embargo tin ku meshon ku ta nesesario pa tene kuenta ku sierto puntonan ora ta

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LFS Cura ao 2016 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 201 7 12 analis e porsentahe di desempleo bou di hbennan,. Por eh mpel, 31,6% di e hbennan desemple na moment o di e enkuesta tabata sigui un enseansa den dia. Ku otro palabra, kasi tres di kada die s hben ku tabata buska trabou den 2016 tataba bishita un skol den dia, kual por a imped nan di tabata ko mpletamente disponibel pa asept un djp i kumins traha definitivamente D i e poblashon ku tabata tin trabou, gran mayoria tabata emple komo empleado ku un kntrakt fiho, 58.9 % Esaki ta komparabel ku na 2015, ounke e porsentahe ta un poko mas abou. E kres ementu di mas grandi ta kontinu p a empleonan ku un posishon ekonmiko fl ksibel, manera kued di djp f Den termino di profeshon, no tabata tin nigun diferensia signifikante den komparshon ku 2015. E profeshon raport mas tantu dor di hende hmber a keda Hende 19. 8 % 2 1.7 % ). Similar ku na 2015, g ran parti di e personanan ku ta labor den 2016 tabata komrsio por detal ; i D i e poblashon ku tabata desemple, un gran parti di e personanan ku ta bata buskando trabou tabat a entre 1 pa 12 luna sin trabou ( 45.2 % ) Sin embargo, un porsentahe haltu tambe ta bata desemple pa 1 aa of mas ( 4 6.3% ) Esaki tabata e kaso na 2015 tambe E poblashon ku tabata ekonmikamente no aktivo tabata konsist prinsipalmente di penshonadonan ( 51.5% ) i studiantenan ( 23.7 % ) ku ta dese na termin nan estudio prom ku drenta e merkado laboral.

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LFS Cura ao 2016 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 201 7 13 Samenvatting De beroepsbevolking, ook wel aangeduid als de economisch actieve bevolking, omvat de niet genstitutionaliseerde werkenden en werklozen van 15 jaar en ouder. In verge lijking met september oktober 2015 is d e beroepsbevolking van Curaao gestegen met 7,2% in september oktober 2016 en bereikte een niveau van 75.070 personen. In termen van absolute cijfers was de toename van de beroepsbevolking vooral te danken aan een toename van de werkende bevolking. Echter, relatief gezien kan de stijging toegeschreven worden aan een grote toename van het aandeel van de werkloze bevolking. De werkende bevolking steeg in september oktober 2016 met bijna 3.330 personen ten opzichte va n september oktober 2015 (5,3%). De toename in de werkende bevolking was zichtbaar bij beide geslachten. De t otale werkende bevolking in september oktober 2016 bestaat uit ongeveer 65.100 personen, waarvan ongeveer 2 000 personen werkloos waren n jaar geleden (in september oktober 2015) en circa 1 050 een opleiding volgden Cijfers van het AKO geven een indicatie dat de stijging van de werkende bevolking hoger wordt bij een toename van de leeftijd. Bijvoorbeeld, de toename van de werkende bevolking in d e leeftijdsgroep van 55 64 jaar was hoger (8,7%) dan de toename van de werkende bevolking in de leeftijdsgroep van 35 44 jaar (1,6%). D e omvang van de werkloze bevolking was 9.953 personen in september oktober 2016, dat is 1 755 personen (21,4%) meer dan in september oktober 2015. Bijgevolg is het werkloosheid spercentage gestegen tot een niveau van 13,3% in september oktober 2016. Dit is 1,6 procentpunt hoger dan in september oktober 2015. De toename van het werkloosheidscijfe r was zichtbaar bij beide geslachten, waarbij vrouwen steeds hogere werkloosheid cijfers hebben dan mannen. Van de beroepsbevolking (15+ jaar) in Curaao was 59.0% beschikbaar om arbeid te leveren (arbeidsparticipatie), t erwijl dit voor de leeftijdsgroep 15 64 jaar in het bijzonder 70,4% was In termen van leeftijd, de toename van de beroepsbevolking was zichtbaar in alle leeftijdsgroepen. De grootste procentuele stijging van de beroepsbevolking vond plaats in de leeftijdsgroep 15 24 jaar en deze stijging was vooral te wijten aan een toename van de werkloze bevolking in deze leeftijdsgroep. Dientengevolge, de jongeren (15 24 jaar) hebben nog steeds het hoogste werkloosheid spercentage in 2016 (jeugdwerkloosheid), zijnde 36,8% Dit is een stijging van 7,1 procentpunt ten opzichte van september oktober 2015, toen de jeugdwerkloosheid 29,7% bedroeg. Echter bij het analyseren van de werkloosheid onder jongeren is het nuttig om rekening te houden met bepaalde zaken. Bijvoorbeeld, 31,6% van de

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LFS Cura ao 2016 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 201 7 14 werkloze jongeren volgde een opleiding Met andere woorden, ongeveer drie op de tien jongeren die op zoek waren naar werk en beschikbaar waren om te beginnen met werken in september oktober 2016 was een dag opleiding aan het volgen, welke ze ko n belemmeren om niet volledig beschik baar te zijn om een baan te accepteren en daadwerkelijk te beginnen met werken Van de werkende bevolking, werkte de meerderheid als werknemer in vaste dienst, 58.9% Dit is hetzelfde als in 2015, hoewel het percentage in september oktober 2016 lager is in vergelijking met september oktober 2015. De grootste stijging van de werkgelegenheid is, net als in 2015, voor de flexibele economische posities, en geen significante verschillen in 2016 in vergelijking met 2015. Het meest gerapporteerde b eroep onder A ( 19,8% D 21,7% ). De meerderheid van de werknemers in 2016 net al s in 2015, werkte in de volgende reparatie van auto's en motorfietsen enselijke gezondheidszorg en maatschappelijk Van de werkloze bevolking is de meerderheid van de personen die actief op zoek waren naar een baan werkloos geweest tussen 1 en 12 maanden ( 4 5 ,2% ) Echter, een hoog percentage is ook werkloos voor n jaar of langer, 46.3% Een soortgelijke situatie was zichtbaar in 2015 De economisch niet actieve bevolking bestond voornamelijk uit gepensioneerden ( 51.5% ) en studenten ( 23,7 % ) die hun studie wilden afmaken alvorens de arbeidsmarkt te betreden

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LFS Cura ao 2016 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 201 7 15 Table of C ontents Preface ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 3 Acknowledgments ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 5 Abbreviations ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 7 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 9 Resmen ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 11 Samenvatting ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 13 Table of Contents ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 15 List of Fi gures and Tables ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 17 Figures ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 17 Tables ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 17 1. Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 19 2. Methodology ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 21 2.1 Study design and study population ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 21 2.2 Questionnaire ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 21 2.3 Data collection and data management ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 22 2.4 Data analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 24 2.5 Defini tions ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 24 3. Results ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 27 3.1 Labour force ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 27 3.2 Employed population ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 35 3.2.1 Highest level of education and willingness to complete an education ................................ ................. 37 3.2.2 Economic position ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 38 3.2.3 Industry and occupation ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 40 3.2.4 Hours worked ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 41 3.2. 5 Looking for more work and second work ................................ ................................ ................................ 42 3.3 Unemployed population ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 44 3.3.1 Highest level of education and willingness to complete an education ................................ ................. 45 3.3.2 Duration of unemployment ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 46 3.3.3 Methods of looking for work ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 46 3.3.4 Youth unemployment ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 47 3.4 Economically not active population ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 50 3.4.1 Highest level of education ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 50 3.4.2 Reasons for economically not active ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 51 References ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 52 Appendices ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 54 Appendix 1: Classifications in the LFS ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 55

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LFS Cura ao 2016 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 201 7 16 Appendix 2: Table age group 55+ years ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 57 Appendix 3: Population of Curaao 2015 2016 ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 58

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LFS Cura ao 2016 17 List of Figures and Tables Figures Figure 1. Classification of persons (as employed, unemployed, or economically not active) in the LFS ........... 26 Figure 2. Development of the labour force participation rate in Curaao, 1992 2016 ................................ ........ 30 Figure 3. Development of the labour force participation rate in Curaao including trendline, 2003 2016 ..... 30 Figure 4. Participation rate in Curaao by age group, 2014 2016 ................................ ................................ .......... 34 Figure 5. Development of the employed population of Curaao, 1992 2016 ................................ ....................... 36 Figure 6. Development of the total population of Curaao, 1992 2016 ................................ ................................ 37 Figure 7. Development of the unemployment rate in Curaao, 1992 2016 ................................ .......................... 44 Tables Table 1. Subjects in the Labour Force Survey questionnaire ................................ ................................ .................... 22 Table 2. Labour force of Curaao, September October 2014, 2015 and 2016 ................................ ....................... 27 Table 2A. Labour force of Curaao, September October 2014, 2015 and 2016, by sex: men .............................. 28 Table 2B. Labour force of Curaao, September October 2014, 2015 and 2016, by sex: women ......................... 29 Table 2C. Labour force of Curaao, September October 2014, 2015 and 2016, by age group: 15 24 years ..... 31 Table 2D. Labour force of Curaao, September October 2014, 2015 and 2016, by age group: 25 34 years ..... 31 Table 2E. Labour force of Curaao, September October 2014, 2015 and 2016, by age group: 35 44 years ...... 32 Table 2F. Labour force of Curaao, September October 2014, 2015 and 2016, by age group: 45 54 years ...... 32 Table 2G. Labour force of Curaao, September October 2014, 2015 and 2016, by age group: 55 64 years ..... 33 Table 2 H. Labour force of Curaao, September October 2014, 2015 and 2016, by age group: 65+ years ........ 33 Table 3. E conomic position of employed population one year (September October 2015) and six months (March April 2016) before the survey* ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 35 Table 4. Highest level of education of employed population September October 2014, 2015 and 2016, by sex ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 37 Table 5. Economic position of employed population, September October 2014, 2015 and 2016 ...................... 39 Table 5A. Economic position of employed population, September October 2014, 2015 and 2016, by sex: men ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 39 Table 5B. Economic position of employed population, September October 2014, 2015 and 2016, by sex: women ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 39 Table 6. Economic activity of employed population, September October 2014, 2015, and 2016 ...................... 40 Table 7. Occupation of employed population, September October 2014, 2015 and 2016, by sex ..................... 41 Table 8. Total hours worked of employed population, September October 2014, 2015 and 2016, by sex ....... 42 Table 9. Highest level of education of unemployed population September October 2014, 2015 and 2016, by sex ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 45 Table 10. Duration of unemployment September October 2014, 2015 and 2016, by sex ................................ ... 46

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LFS Cura ao 2016 18 Table 11. Methods of looking for work by unemployed population September October 2014, 2015 and 2016, by sex ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 46 Table 12. Highest level of education of economically not active population September October 2014, 2015 and 2016, by sex ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 50 Table 13. Reasons for not looking for work by economically not active population September October 2014, 2015 and 2016, by sex ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 51 Table 14. Labour force of Curaao, September October 2014, 2015 and 2016, by age group: 55+ years .......... 57 T able 15. Population of Cura ao 2015 and 2016 1 ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 58

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LFS Cura ao 2016 19 1. Introduction A labour market is the structure that allocates la bour to its most productive use and functions throug h the interaction of those who supply labo ur services (workers) and those who demand labo u r services ( employers). Statistics on the labour market are critical to understa nd the labour market whether one applies the microeconomic ( economics at an individual, group or company level ) or ma croeconom ic (national economy) approach. Labour statistics also known as labour market information involves the systematic collection and analysis of data that describes the demand and supply of labour Without labour mark et information it is impossible for a country to understand the dynamics of its labour marke t. Since 1987, t he Centra l Bureau of Statistics (CBS) of Curaao formerly the CBS of the Netherlands Antilles 0F 1 has been conducting Labour Force S urvey s ( LFS, in Dutch: Arb eidskrachteno nderzoek, AKO ) annually in the months September October to monitor the most important developments on the supply side of the labo u r market in Curaao on a regular basis 1F 2 (Lake, 2013) In 2016, for the first time, a LFS was also carried out in the months March April (LFS 2016 1) to investigate developments in the first half of the year. Results of this LFS 2016 1 will be published when compilation of more LFS data for the period March April is av aila ble in order to make comparison s T his report presents the results of the LFS held in the months September October 2016 (LFS 2016 2) with the Key Indicators of the Labour Market (KILM ) recommended by the International Labour Organization (ILO) and are therefore internationally comparable. Consequently market are available in the ILO databases (ILO, 2017). Info rmation provided by the LFS makes it possible to produce statistics on the economically active population also known as the labour force The economically active population includes both the employed and unemployed population. From an economic point of view, one of the main objective s of collecting data on the economically active population is to provide basic information on the size and structure of a labour force. Data collected at different points in time provide a basis for monitoring current trends and changes in the (un) employment situation. In addition to the econ omically active population, the LFS also provide s statistics on the economically not active population for example pensioners. 1 Curaao was, together with Bonaire, Saba, St. Eustatius and St. Maarten, part of the Netherlands Antilles until the country's dissolution on October 10, 2010, when Curaao became a constituent country within the Kingdom of the Netherla nds. Until 2010, the CBS of the Netherlands Antilles conducted labour statistics for the five islands. 2 In the years 2010 and 2012 there has been no LFS due to preparation for the Census 2011 and budget constraints, respectively.

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LFS Cura ao 2016 20 One of the most important labour market indicators is the unemployment rate The unemployment rate reflects the percentage of the labour force that does not have a job, but is actively looking for one and is available to start working. The unemployment rate is widely used in particular as an overall indicator of the (Hussmanns, 2007) Other important indicators are the labour force participation rate, the employment to population ratio, and the level of education and occupation of the employed population. The labour force participation rate is the percentage of the population that actively engages in the labour market, by either working or looking for work, while t he employment to population age population that is employed. All the aforementioned indicators together with other s described in this report give a general overview of the supply side o f the labour market in Curaao.

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LFS Cura ao 2016 21 2. Methodology 2.1 Study design and study population The LFS is a sampl e survey held among households in Curaao For determination of an appropriate sample size, research on the sample estimates and variances were made. This was done by taking into account the last available LFS unemployment rate an 1 .5% one side d margin of error and a non response rate of 20.0%. T he sampling frame for the LFS was taken from the population registry database of the Registry Office ( ) and encompasses all inhabited unique addresses T he sample was selected using a simple random sampling design with out replacement By u sing this procedure each household in the registry had a known and equal probability of selection to participate in the s urvey A total of N = 2,650 households were selected t o participate in the LFS 2016 2 which is a pproximately 5% of all households in Curaao Na tional media ( including newspaper, radio, and television) were used to inform the community of the upcoming survey. Furthermore, t o ensure that the selected households would be fully informed, a letter was sent to them containing background information of the survey and request for cooperation and participation. During the fieldwork of the study, a total of 100 additional households were included to cope with non response. These 100 households were selected using the same sam pling design as described above. Out of the 2,650 + 100 = 2,750 selected households, N = 2, 016 households participated in the LFS 2016 2 representing a response rate of 7 3 3 %. Of the households that did not participate (non response): 3 3 7 % involved uninhabited addresse s or households that could not be located 2 6 8 % refused to participate, at 2 4 7 % of the addresses there was nobody at home on three or more separate occasions and 14.8 % did no t participate for other reasons The study population of the LFS included non institutionalized men and wome n residing for three mont h s or more in Curaao or planning to stay for three months or longer on the i sland. By defining the study population in this manner, tourists and persons with short stay s (e.g. attending short term training activities) who do not contribute to the labour market were not included T he LFS makes statements about the population aged 15 years and older (also known as the working population). 2.2 Questionnaire A s tandardized questionnaire mostly with multiple answer options, is used to collect the data during the LFS The questionnaire used in 2016 was similar to the questionnaire used in 2015 and was available in the

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LFS Cura ao 2016 22 four languages : Papiamentu; Dutch; English; and Spanish. Since the LFS is an anonymous survey no personal identifiers w ere asked on the questionnaire this in order t o maintain the anonymity of the respondents. T he subjects included in the questionnaire s are listed in Table 1. Table 1 Subjects in the Labour Force Survey questionnaire Subjects Description 1. Demographics Gender Age Country of birth N ationality 2. Education H ighest education obtained Willingness to complete an education 3. Labour market Hist ory of work in the past 12 months Current job or own company /business 4. Persons with work E conomic position in current work Economic activity of company /business Occupation in current work Average w orking hours per week 5. Persons looking for work Amount of time looking for work Reason for looking for work Methods of looking for work Reasons why it is difficult to find work Desired type of work Desired working hours per week Willingness to accept other type of work 6. E conomically not active persons Reason for not working or looking for a job 7. Income Amount of h ighest income last month Source of highest income Amount of second highest income last month Source of second highest income 8. History Economic position on labour market six months before survey Economic position on labour market one year before survey 2. 3 D ata collection and data management The Fieldwork department carried out the fieldwork for the study D ata collection for the LFS 2016 2 took place in the period of Septemb er 2 October 11 As in previous years, C omputer Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI) was used to collect the data CAPI refers to survey data collection by a survey admin istrator (interviewer) using a computer (tablet) to administer the questio nnaire to the respondent s and

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LFS Cura ao 2016 23 to captur e the answers (Baker, Bradburn, & Johnson, 1995) A total of 40 experienced interviewers were trained in the methodology of the study and the use of tablets to assur e consistency in the data collection. Within the selected households basic demographic information was colle cted on all household members, while labour force information was additionally collected for househ old members aged 15 years and older The i nterviewers were requested to introduce themselves and to explain the goal of the survey to the respon dents prior to data collection. The interviewers were instructed t o personally interview every person aged 15 years or older in each sampled household. How ever if a household member was unavaila ble for interview, the interviewers would accept information given by a proxy P roxy respo ndents are normally either people living with a partner and who res pond on their behalf of their partner or parents who respond on be half of their offspring who live with them, but who at the time are at school/ university or working for example If the proxy respondent did not know the answer to a que stion, the interviewer could make an appointment to collect the missing information on another occasion Furthermore i f a member within a participating household refused to participate the interviewer would try to collect information on the age, sex and the economic position of the person who refused. The computer program Census and Survey Proce ssing System (CSPro) version 6.3 was use d for data entry by means of tablets ( U.S. Census Bureau, 2015) The tablets DELL Venue 8 Pro and DELL Venue 10 were used and the digital questionnaire was created based on the paper version of the questi onnaire and the corresponding codebook. The use of tablets incorporated many features that serve d to maximize the quality of the data collected. For instance, t here were many edits built into the CSPro program to compare the entered data against unusual values, as well as to check for inconsistencies. Whenever an entry failed, due to unusual values for example, the interviewer had the possibility to correct the information. If for any reason this was not possible, the interviewer had the option to save the partially filled questionnaire in or der to continue at another time. In addition in both years, the IT helpdesk could be contacted during the fieldwork to solve any problem regarding the use of tablet s. E ach interviewer visited a median of 67 households (inter quartile range (IQR) 61 79). The interviewers visited the department of F ieldwork weekly to discuss their progress with the fieldwork coordinator and to deliver the collected data. The delivered data were c hecked and when necessary corrected by the IT specialist To further verify the data delivered independent control procedure s w ere performed Approximately 2 0% of the participating households were telephoned and asked whether the collected information was in accordance with the information provided Furthermore, 15 participating households were visited to verify the acquired information N o discrepancies were fo und in both verification processes

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LFS Cura ao 2016 24 After the fieldwork period of the study, t he individual data sets of the forty interviewers were merged into two datasets in order to start the process of data coding. A nswers regarding education, industry (sector) and occupation were coded by two train ed coders using intern ational classification systems, while taking into account local situation. The International Standard Class ification of Education (ISCED 1997 ) the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC rev. 4) and the International Standard Classification of O ccupation (ISCO 2008 ) were used ( Appendix 1) A fter data coding the two datasets were merged into a final dataset 2 4 Data analysi s D ata cleaning and data analysi s were performed on the final dataset. In general, the LFS makes statements about the entire non institutionalized population of Curaao aged 15 years and olde r Therefore, the LFS results were weighted to present absolute figures for this population Post stratification weighting procedures were applied by the methodologist using CBS population estimates based on the 2011 Cen sus and the population registry database of the Registry Office Consequently the absolute numbers for the total population must be seen as estimates that can be subject to sampling errors. All analyse s were performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 and R version 3.2.1 The data analyse s in cluded descriptive and bivariate analyses Descriptive results included means, medi ans and proportions. I nter quartile ranges (IQR) were calculated for medians to indicate the precision of these estimate s Descriptive results focused on the distribution of individual variable s Variables of interest were dis aggregated by sex (men and women ) and age group ( 15 2 4 ye ars, 2 5 34 years, 35 44 years 45 54 years, 55 64 years, and 65+ years ). Bivariate analyses square on the unweighted data. A p value of <0.05 was consider ed to be statistically significant. 2. 5 Definitions The def initions used in the LFS are based on the KILM and by taking into account the local labour market situation Accordi ngly, individuals 15 years and older were classified in one of the three categories of the labour market (labour status) : employed unemployed, or economically not active. The definitions are given in this paragraph

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LFS Cura ao 2016 25 Employed A ll persons of 15 years and older who during the research period: a. had a job or have their own business ; or b. who during the week preceding the research period perform ed any work for pay in cash or in kind for 4 hours or more. Unemployed A ll persons of 15 year s and older who during the research period: a. did not have a job or a business of their own; and b. ha d actively been seeking work in the preceding month of the research period ; and c. who were available to start working or start a business within two weeks. Economically not a ctive A ll persons of 15 years and older who during the research period: a. did not have a job or own a business ; and b. who were not actively seeking work. Labour force The total number of p ersons who are employed added to the total number of persons who are unemployed. Unemployment rate The number of unemployed persons as a percentage of the labour force. Youth unemployment rate The unemployment rate in the age category of 15 24 years. P articipation rate The number of persons in the labour force as a percentage of the total population. Labour Force p articipation rate The number of persons in the labour force as a percentage of the working age population.

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LFS Cura ao 2016 26 Figure 1 gives a schematic overview of the three labour statuses (employed, unemployed and economically not active) and the route to be classified into one of them. Figure 1 Classification of persons (as employed, unemployed, or economically not active) in the LFS

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LFS Cura ao 2016 27 3. Results 3.1 Labour force T he labour force is the total number of the employed and the unemployed (non institutionalized) population aged 15 years and older In September October 2016 the labour force of Curaao consisted of 75 07 0 persons (Table 2). This is an increase of 7.2 percent in comparison to the survey held in September October 2015 whe re t he labour force consiste d of 70,021 persons. This shows that over the period, the total labour force grew by 5,0 49 persons. Worth mentioning is also the in crease of 1,64 7 persons in the Curaao aged 15 years and older in 2016 in comparison to 2015. In terms of absolute numbers, the increase in the labour force in 2016 in comparison to 2015 was mainly due to an increase in the employed populat ion. However, in terms of relative figures the increase can be attributed to the large increase in the share of the unemployed population (21.4%). Table 2 Labour force of Curaao, September October 2014, 2015 and 2016 Sept. Oct. 2014 Sept. Oct. 2015 Sept. Oct. 2016 Absolute m utations 2014 2015 Percentage mutations 2014 2015 Absolute m utations 2015 2016 Percentage mutations 2015 2016 Employed population 59,295 61,823 65,11 7 2,528 4.3 3,29 4 5.3 Unemployed population 8,555 8,198 9,953 357 4.2 1,755 21.4 Labour force 67,850 70,021 75,07 0 2,171 3.2 5,0 49 7.2 Economically not active population 55,871 55,670 52,267 201 0.4 3,40 3 6.1 Population 0 14 years 29,513 29,612 29,382 99 0.3 230 0. 8 Population 15+ years 123,721 125,690 127,33 7 1,969 1.6 1,64 7 1.3 Total population 153,234 155,302 156,7 19 2,068 1.3 1,41 7 0.9 Participation rate (%) 44.3 45.1 47.9 0.8* 2.8* Labour force participation rate (%) 54.8 55.7 59.0 0.9* 3.3* Participation rate, 15 64 years (%) 65. 5 66.6 70.4 Unemployment rate (%) 12.6 11.7 13.3 0.9* 1.6* Employment/total population (%) 38.7 39.8 41.6 1.1* 1.8* Employment/population 15+ (%) 47.9 49.2 51.1 1.3* 1.9* Percentage points Another key indicator of the labour market is the labour force participation rate The labour force participation rate relates the labour force to the working age population. The working age population is the pop ulation above the legal working age of a country ( International Labour Organization, 2015) The legal working age in Curaao is 15 years ( Boek 7A Burgerlijk Wetboek ) ( Centraal Wettenregister, 2013)

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LFS Cura ao 2016 28 In 201 6 59.0 % of the working age population in Curaao was available to supply labour. This figure showed a n increase of 3.3 percentage points in comparison to 2015. Thus, in September October 201 6 a higher percentage was economically active in comparison to September October 201 5 As previously mentioned, relatively, t he increase in the labour force in 2016 was mainly due to growth in the un employed population. In fact, the unemployment rate in Curaao in 2016 was 1 3.3 % which is an increase of 1.6 percenta ge points in comparison to 2015 where the unemployment rate was 11.7% The unemployment rate is the percentage of the labour force that does not have a job, but is available to start working and is actively looking for work. This indicator reflects the lack of employment in a country. In terms of employment, 51 1 % of the working age population was employed in 201 6. This figure represents t employment to populatio the proportion of a age population that is employed. A working in September October 2016 in comparison to September October 2015. The employment to population ratio together with the unemployment rate provides essential information about the situation on the supply side of labour market Table s 2 A and 2B give an overview of t he following indicators disaggregated by sex: labour force, labour force participation rate, unemployment rate, and employment to population ratio Table 2 A Labour force of Curaao, September October 2014, 2015 and 2016, by sex: men Men Sept. Oct. 2014 Sept. Oct. 2015 Sept. Oct. 2016 Absolute m utations 2014 2015 Percentage mutations 2014 2015 Absolute m utations 2015 2016 Percentage mutations 2015 2016 Employed population 28,623 29,846 31,684 1,223 4.3 1,838 6.2 Unemployed population 3,658 3,507 4,222 151 4.1 715 20.4 Labour force 32,281 33,353 35,906 1,072 3.3 2,553 7.7 Economically not active population 22,112 22,004 20,30 7 108 0.5 1,69 7 7.7 Population 0 14 years 15,116 15,108 14,989 8 0.05 119 0.8 Population 15+ years 54,393 55,357 56,21 3 964 1.8 856 1.5 Total population 69,509 70,465 71,20 2 956 1.4 73 7 1.0 Participation rate (%) 46.4 47.3 50.4 0.9* 3.1* Labour force participation rate (%) 59.3 60.3 63.9 1.0* 3.6* Participation rate, 15 64 years (%) 69.4 70.4 74.8 Unemployment rate (%) 11.3 10.5 11.8 0.8* 1.3* Employment/total population (%) 41.2 42.4 44.5 1.2* 2.1* Employment/population 15+ (%) 52.6 53.9 56.4 1.3* 2.5* Percentage points

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LFS Cura ao 2016 29 Table 2 B Labour force of Curaao, September October 2014, 2015 and 2016, by sex: women Women Sept. Oct. 2014 Sept. Oct. 2015 Sept. Oct. 2016 Absolute m utations 2014 2015 Percentage mutations 2014 2015 Absolute m utations 2015 2016 Percentage mutations 2015 2016 Employed population 30,672 31,976 33,43 3 1,304 4.3 1,45 7 4.6 Unemployed population 4,897 4,691 5,731 206 4.2 1,040 22.2 Labour force 35,569 36,667 39,16 4 1,098 3.1 2,49 7 6.8 Economically not active population 33,759 33,666 31,960 93 0.3 1,706 5.1 Population 0 14 years 14,397 14,504 14,393 107 0.7 111 0.8 Population 15+ years 69,328 70,333 71,12 4 1,005 1.4 79 1 1.1 Total population 83,725 84,837 85,51 7 1,112 1.3 68 0 0.8 Participation rate (%) 42.5 43.2 45.8 0.7* 2.6* Labour force participation rate (%) 51.3 52.1 55.1 0.8* 3.0* Participation rate, 15 64 years (%) 62.2 63.7 66.9 Unemployment rate (%) 13.8 12.8 14.6 1.0* 1.8* Employment/total population (%) 36.6 37.7 39.1 1.1* 1.4* Employment/population 15+ (%) 44.2 45.5 47.0 1.3* 1.5* Percentage points The increment in the labour force in 2016 in comparison to 2015 w as visible in both sexes and t he mutation of the increment was a little bit higher for men than for women, being 7 7 % and 6 8 % respectively (Table 2A and 2B ) The increase in the unemployment rate in 201 6 in comparison to 201 5 was also noticeable in both sexes The unemployment rate in men increased from 10.5 % in 201 5 to 1 1 8 % in 2016 while for women, the unemployment rate increased from 12 .8% in 2015 to 14.6 % in 2016 Thus, women continued having higher unemployment rates than men in 2016 On the other hand t he labour force participation rate is lower among women than among men This means that relative ly fewer women take part in the labour force. The employment to population ratio indicator points to this gender difference as well The proportion of women in the working age that are employed in Curaao is lower than the proportion of men in the working age that are employed on the island In absolute figures however, the labour force for women is larger Because t he labour force survey has been conducted in Curaao since 1987 it is of particular interest to look at the development of the labour force participation rate over the years. Figure 2 gives an overview of the labour force participation rate for Curaao over the 1992 201 6 period

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LFS Cura ao 2016 30 Figure 2 Development of the labour force participation rate in Curaao, 1992 2016 Overall, t he patterns of the labour force participation rate for men and women separately are quite similar to the patter n of the total labour force participation rate. Between 1992 and 2001 the labour force participation rate of men declined, while that of women increased. In the 2001 2003 period the labour force participation rate of both men and women increased. However, as of 2003 the trend s tabilized towards a slight decreasing trend among men and women, while showing variations from year to year (Figure 3) T he highest labour force particip ation rate in the last 10 years was in 2013, being 59.9 %. Figure 3 Development of the labour force participation rate in Curaao including trendline 2003 2016

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LFS Cura ao 2016 31 All the aforementioned labour market indicators are disaggregated by sex. But, b esides disaggregation by sex, disaggregation by age group is also important For example, it is useful to identify groups of workers that are most vulnerable to unemployment. T able s 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F, 2G, and 2H present an overview of the indicators labour force, labour force participation rate, unemployment rate, and employment to population ratio for the following age groups: 15 24 years, 2 5 34 years, 35 44 years 45 54 y ears, 55 64 year s, and 65+ years. Table 2 C Labour force of Curaao, September October 2014, 2015 and 2016, by age group: 15 24 years 15 24 years Sept. Oct. 2014 Sept. Oct. 2015 Sept. Oct. 2016 Mutations 2014 2015 Percentage mutations 2014 2015 Mutations 2015 2016 Percentage mutations 2015 2016 Employed population 3,181 3,880 4,450 699 22.0 570 14.7 Unemployed population 1,578 1,641 2,593 63 4.0 952 58.0 Labour force 4,759 5,521 7,043 762 16.0 1,522 27.6 Economically not active population 14,290 13,698 12,171 592 4.1 1,527 11.1 Population 15 24 years 19,049 19,219 19,215 170 0.9 4 0.02 Participation rate (%) 25.0 28.7 36.7 3.7* 8.0* Youth unemployment rate (%) 1 33.2 29.7 36.8 3.5* 7.1* Employment/population 15 24 years (%) 16.7 20.2 23.2 3.5* 3.0* Youth unemployment/total unemployment 1 2.6 2.5 2.8 0.1* 0.3* Percentage points 1 See paragraph 3.3.4 for more information on youth unemployment. Table 2 D Labour force of Curaao, September October 2014, 2015 and 2016, by age group: 25 34 years 25 34 years Sept. Oct. 2014 Sept. Oct. 2015 Sept. Oct. 2016 Mutations 2014 2015 Percentage mutations 2014 2015 Mutations 2015 2016 Percentage mutations 2015 2016 Employed population 12,166 13,082 13,298 916 7.5 216 1.7 Unemployed population 2,215 2,095 2,298 120 5.4 203 9.7 Labour force 14,381 15,177 15,596 796 5.5 419 2.8 Economically not active population 2,468 2,369 2,439 99 4.0 70 3.0 Population 25 34 years 16,849 17,546 18,035 697 4.1 489 2.8 Participation rate (%) 85.4 86.5 86.5 1.1* 0* Unemployment rate (%) 15.4 13.8 14.7 1.6* 0.9* Employment/population 25 34 years (%) 72.2 74.6 73.7 2.4* 0.9* Percentage points

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LFS Cura ao 2016 32 Table 2 E Labour force of Curaao, September October 2014, 2015 and 2016, by age group: 35 44 years 35 4 4 years Sept. Oct. 2014 Sept. Oct. 2015 Sept. Oct. 2016 Mutations 2014 2015 Percentage mutations 2014 2015 Mutations 2015 2016 Percentage mutations 2015 2016 Employed population 14,966 14,636 14,87 2 330 2.2 23 6 1.6 Unemployed population 2,260 1,619 1,837 641 28.4 218 13.5 Labour force 17,226 16,255 16,70 9 971 5.6 45 4 2.8 Economically not active population 2,513 3,336 2,601 823 32.7 735 22.0 Population 3 5 4 4 years 19,739 19,592 19,3 10 147 0.7 28 2 1.4 Participation rate (%) 87.3 83.0 86.5 4.3* 3.5* Unemployment rate (%) 13.1 10.0 11.0 3.1* 1.0* Employment/population 3 5 34 years (%) 75.8 74.7 77.0 1.1* 2.3* Percentage points Table 2 F Labour force of Curaao, September October 2014, 2015 and 2016, by age group: 45 54 years 45 5 4 years Sept. Oct. 2014 Sept. Oct. 2015 Sept. Oct. 2016 Mutations 2014 2015 Percentage mutations 2014 2015 Mutations 2015 2016 Percentage mutations 2015 2016 Employed population 17,618 17,938 18,690 320 1.8 752 4.2 Unemployed population 1,718 1,931 2,179 213 12.4 248 12.8 Labour force 19,336 19,869 20,869 533 2.8 1,000 5.0 Economically not active population 5,088 4,447 3,413 641 12.6 1,034 23.3 Population 4 5 5 4 years 24,424 24,316 24,282 108 0.4 34 0.1 Participation rate (%) 79.2 81.7 85.9 2.5* 4.2* Unemployment rate (%) 8.9 9.7 10.4 0.8* 0.7* Employment/population 25 34 years (%) 72.1 73.8 77.0 1.7* 3.2* Percentage points

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LFS Cura ao 2016 33 Table 2 G Labour force of Curaao, September October 2014, 2015 and 2016, by age group: 55 64 years 55 6 4 years Sept. Oct. 2014 Sept. Oct. 2015 Sept. Oct. 2016 Mutations 2014 2015 Percentage mutations 2014 2015 Mutations 2015 2016 Percentage mutations 2015 2016 Employed population 9,630 10,507 11,422 877 9.1 915 8.7 Unemployed population 744 760 866 16 2.2 106 13.9 Labour force 10,374 11,267 12,288 893 8.6 1,021 9.1 Economically not active population 10,522 10,220 9,80 1 302 2.9 41 9 4.1 Population 5 5 6 4 years 20,896 21,487 22,0 89 591 2.8 603 2.8 Participation rate (%) 49.6 52.4 55.6 2.8* 3.2* Unemployment rate (%) 7.2 6.7 7.0 0.5* 0.3* Employment/population 5 5 6 4 years (%) 46.1 48.9 51.7 2.8* 2.8* Percentage points Table 2 H Lab our force of Curaao, September October 2014, 2015 and 2016, by age group: 65+ years 65+ years Sept. Oct. 2014 Sept. Oct. 2015 Sept. Oct. 2016 Mutations 2014 2015 Percentage mutations 2014 2015 Mutations 2015 2016 Percentage mutations 2015 2016 Employed population 1,734 1,780 2,386 46 2.7 606 34.0 Unemployed population ** 39 152 179 113 >100 27 17.8 Labour force 1,773 1,932 2,565 159 9.0 633 32.8 Economically not active population 20,991 21,598 21,84 2 607 2.9 24 4 1.1 Population 65+ years 22,764 23,530 24,40 6 766 3.4 87 7 3.7 Participation rate (%) 7.8 8.2 10.5 0.4* 2.3* Unemployment rate (%) 2.2 7.9 7.0 5.7* 0.9* Employment/population 65+ years (%) 8.3 7.6 9.8 0.7* 2.2* Percentage points ** Caution should be taken when interpreting these results, as the numbers are low.

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LFS Cura ao 2016 34 The increase in the labour force and the participation rate in 201 6 in comparison to 201 5 were with the exception of the age group 25 3 4 years, visible in all age groups. In the age group 25 34 years, the participation rate remained the same in 2016 as in 2015, while the labour force increased by 2.8 percent. In general, t he largest percentage increase in the labour force took place in the age group 15 24 years (youth) The labour force in this age group consisted of 5,521 persons in 2015 and increased to 7,043 persons in 201 6 which is a growth of 27.6 % (Table 2C) This growth was mainly due to an increase in the un employed youth population. As a result the youth showed also the largest increase in the unemployment rate between 2015 and 2016. In 2016, t he youth continued having the highest unemployment rate, being 36.7 % The unemployment rate increased in all the other age groups as well with the exception of the age group 65+ years However, caution should be taken when interpreting this age category, as the numbers are low The highest participation rate in 201 6 was in the age group s 25 34 years and 35 44 years being 86.5% in both age groups (Ta ble 2D, Table 2 E and Figure 4 ) However, t he largest increase i n the participation rate in 2016 in comparison to 2015 took place again in the age group 15 24 years (Figure 4) The participation rate in this group increase d from 2 8 7 % in 2015 to 36 .7% in 20 1 6 Figure 4 gives an overview of the development of the participation rate for different age group s for the 2014 2016 period Moreover in the (upcoming) article ce will be explored to illustrate interrelations between labour forc e and economy (Jansen, Varlack, 2017) Figure 4 Participation rate in Curaao by age group, 2014 2016

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LFS Cura ao 2016 35 3.2 Employed population The employed population comprises all persons 15 years and older in employment ; that is, all persons w ho during the research period had a job or have their own business, or who during the week preceding the research period perform ed any work for pay in ca sh or in kind for 4 hours or more. This includes also persons who worked as trainees, employees working through as well as unpaid family workers. In September October 2016, the size of the employed population was 65, 11 7 persons of which 31,684 were men and 33,43 3 were women. This showed that, in comparison to September October 2015, the employed population grew by 3,29 4 persons or 5.3 percent over the period of one year. The increment in the employed population was visible in both sexes. However, figures of the LFS suggest that the mutation of the increment increased along with increase in age groups. For example, the increase in the employed population in the age group 55 64 years was higher (8.7%) than the increase in the employed population in the age group 35 44 years (1.6%). Of the employed population in September October 2016, around 2,000 were unemployed one year before the survey (September October 2015) and about 1,05 0 were in education Table 3 gives an overview of the economic position of the employed population one year (in September October 2015) before the LFS 2016 2 Table 3 E conomic position of employed p opulation one year (September October 2015) before the survey Absolute N = 65,117 Percentage Not in employment in Sept. Oct. 2015 Unemployed (looking for work) 2,028 3.1 In education 1,066 1.6 Pensioner 714 1.1 Not in employment, not in education, not looking for work 895 1.4 Total not in employment 4,703 7.2 In employment in Sept. Oct. 2015 Employer 1,456 2.2 Self employed 4,885 7.5 Employee in permanent service 37,510 57.6 Employee in temporary service 7,577 11.6 Casual worker/freelancer 7,180 11.0 Trainee, employee working for an employment agency or working as unpaid family member 849 1.3 Total in employment 59,457 91.3 Unknown/not reported 957 1.5 The economic positions used in this table are not derived from international classification, but are measure based on a respondent interpretation

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LFS Cura ao 2016 36 Figure 5 gives an overview of the development of the employed population in Curaao over the 1992 2016 period. The total employed population increased between 1992 and 1997, decreased between 1997 and 2001, and increased again in the 2001 2013 period. However, there was a slight decrease in the total employed population figure in 2014, whereas an increase was seen again in 2015 and this continued in 2016. Figure 5 Development of the employed population of Curaao, 1992 2 01 6 When looking at the employed population of both sexes, different development patterns were seen. With the exception of the 1996 1997 period, the employed men population showed a pattern fairly similar to that of the total employed population. For the employed women population, however, the pattern is different. From 1992 to 2011, t he number of employed women increased almost every year From 2011 to 2014, the n umber of employed women showed a slight decrease, while from 2015 onwards an increase was once again seen Worth to mention is the fact that t he increase in the employed population in the 2001 2011 period has been stronger among women than among men. In fa ct, from 2004 onwards, there are more working women than men. Figure 6 illustrates the development in the total population for the 1992 2016 period Herein is that this gender difference is getting stronger from 200 3 onwards possibly resulting in the fact that there is more employed women than men as of 2004.

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LFS Cura ao 2016 37 Figure 6 Development of the total population of Curaao, 1992 2016 The rest of this paragraph de scribe different characteristics of the employed population: their level of education, economic position, occupation, the sector in which employees and employers are working, and the amount of hours worked are presented. Furthermore, an overview of the employed p ersons who say they have a second job or are looking for one is given. 3.2.1 Highest level of education and willingness to complete an education Table 4 shows the percentages of the highest level of education of the employed population of Curaao in 2016. The majority of the employed population in 201 6 had the second stage of the second level as their highest level of education ( 33 7 % ). This is in accordance to the years 2015. The second stage of the second education. See Appendix 1 for an overview of the way the educational system is classified. Table 4 Highest level of education of employed population September October 2014, 2015 and 2016, by sex Men (%) Women (%) Total (%) 2014 2015 2016 2014 2015 2016 2014 2015 2016 N=28,623 N=29,846 N=31,684 N=30,672 N=31,976 N=33,43 3 N=59,295 N=61,823 N=65,11 7 Current daytime education 1 1.8 3.0 3.9 2.6 3.0 3.2 2.2 3.0 3.6 No education -1.5 1.0 -1.4 1.0 -1.4 1.0 Elementary 1 5.7 5.8 5.1 5.9 4.9 7.0 5.8 5.3 6.1 Second level, first stage 1 35.3 32.8 33.0 30.1 29.8 26.9 32.6 31.3 29.9 Second level, first stage 1 35.3 32.8 33.0 30.1 29.8 26.9 32.6 31.3 29.9

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LFS Cura ao 2016 38 Table 4 continue. Highest level of education of employed population September October 2014, 2015 and 2016, by sex Men (%) Women (%) Total (%) 2014 2015 2016 2014 2015 2016 2014 2015 2016 N=28,623 N=29,846 N=31,684 N=30,672 N=31,976 N=33,43 3 N=59,295 N=61,823 N=65,11 7 Third level 1 24.7 22.3 22.3 25.0 27.4 27.3 24.8 25.0 24.7 Unknown/not reported -2.0 1.4 -1.7 0.8 -1.9 1.1 1 Current daytime education = currently attending a daytime education Second level, first stage = VSBO, HAVO years 1+2, VWO years 1+2 or equivalent Second level, second stage = HAVO years 3+4+5, VWO years 3+4+5+6, SBO, MBO or equivalent Third level = HBO, WO, and postdoctoral or equivalent -percentages are therefore not presented. In general, there were no main differences in the highest attended level of education among employed men and women. The most common highest level of educati on among men and women in 2016 was the second stage o f the second level. However, for employed women, it looks like that the percentage of those with a first stage of the second level of education is decreasing form 2014 onwards. In 2016, 3 4.3 % of the employed population who was not attending a daytime education at the moment of the survey was willing to complete an (additional) education, while 6 2.3 % was not willing to complete another education. One percent (1.2 % ) was attending an evening educ ation at the moment of the survey and 2.2 % did not state an answer to this matter. 3.2.2 Economic position Table 5 gives an overview of the economic position of the employed populat ion in 2016 In addition, figures of 2014 and 2015 are given to make data comparability. In Table s 5A and 5 B the economic position is disaggregated by sex. The same direction of change is seen for almost all the economic positions for men and women separately. The majority of the employed population in 2016 ( 58.9 % ) continued to work as an employee in permanent service. The number of employees in permanent service remained fairly constant in 2016 in comparison to 2015. On the overall, there has been an increase in the number of employers, self employed persons, employ ees in temporary service, casual workers/freelancers, and workers having other flexible economic greatest increase in employment in comparison to 2015 continued to be for the flexible economic positions. The largest absolute increase was in the group of casual workers/freelancers, an increase of 2,173 persons, which represents a percentage increase of 33.4 %

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LFS Cura ao 2016 39 It is well known that the size and role of flexible economic positions increases during economic downturns and periods of economic adjustment and transition. Labo r market theory suggests an increase in flexible economic positions as a result of economic turmoil, since these types of employment can act as a buffer when T able 5 Economic position of employed population, September October 2014, 2015 and 2016 Absolute Percentage 2014 N=59,295 2015 N=61,823 2016 N=65,11 7 2014 2015 2016 Absolute mutations 2014 2015 Percentage mutations 2014 2015 Absolute mutations 2015 2016 Percentage mutations 2015 2016 Employer 1,875 1,104 1,404 3.2 1.8 2. 2 771 41.1 300 27.2 Self employed 4,681 5,264 5, 372 7.9 8.5 8. 3 583 12.5 108 2.1 Employee in permanent service 37,063 38,393 38,361 62.5 62.1 58.9 1,330 3.6 32 0.1 Employee in temporary service 7,496 9,220 9,645 12.6 14.9 14.8 1,724 23.0 425 4.6 Casual worker/freelancer 6,092 6,511 8,684 10.3 10.5 13.3 419 6.9 2,173 33.4 Other 1 766 958 1,617 1.3 1.5 2.5 192 25.1 6 59 68. 8 Unknown/not reported 1,322 373 34 2.2 0.6 0.1 949 71.8 339 90.9 1 Table 5 A Economic position of employed population, September October 2014, 2015 and 2016, by sex: men Absolute Percentage 2014 N= 28,623 2015 N= 29,846 2016 N= 31,684 2014 2015 2016 Absolute mutations 2014 2015 Percentage mutations 2014 2015 Absolute mutations 2015 2016 Percentage mutations 2015 2016 Employer 1,269 907 1,122 4.4 3.0 3.5 362 28.5 215 23.7 Self employed 3,169 3,362 3,605 11.1 11.3 11.4 193 6.1 243 7.2 Employee in permanent service 16,492 17,233 17,126 57.6 57.7 54.1 741 4.5 107 0.6 Employee in temporary service 3,480 4,366 4,251 12.2 14.6 13.4 886 25.5 115 2.6 Casual worker/freelancer 3,316 3,432 4,714 11.6 11.5 14.9 116 3.5 1,282 37.4 Other 1 ** 175 396 832 0.6 1.3 2.6 221 126.3 436 110.1 Unknown/not reported 722 151 34 2.5 0.5 0.1 571 79.1 117 77.5 1 Other included e.g. ** Caution should be taken when interpreting this category, as the numbers are low. Table 5 B Economic position of employed population, September October 2014, 2015 and 2016, by sex: women Absolute Percentage 2014 N= 30,672 2015 N= 31,976 2016 N= 33,433 2014 2015 2016 Absolute mutations 2014 2015 Percentage mutations 2014 2015 Absolute mutations 2015 2016 Percentage mutations 2015 2016 Employer 606 197 282 2.0 0.6 0.8 409 67.5 85 43.1 Self employed 1,512 1,903 1,767 4.9 6.0 5.3 391 25.9 136 7.1 Employee in permanent service 20,570 21,160 21,235 67.1 66.2 63.5 590 2.9 75 0.4 Employee in temporary service 4,015 4,854 5,394 13.1 15.2 16.1 839 20.9 540 11.1 Casual worker/freelancer 2,775 3,079 3,970 9.0 9.6 11.9 304 11.0 8 91 28.9 Other 1 591 562 786 1.9 1.8 2.4 29 4.9 224 39.9 Unknown/not reported 603 221 0 2.0 0.7 0 382 63.3 221 100.0 1 Other included e.g.

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LFS Cura ao 2016 40 people are laid off and need to find new job opportunities (OECD, 2016) Statistics on the economy of Curaao showed a negative economic growth in 2013 and 2014 ( 0.8% and 1.1%, respectively; CBS, 2016), while a slight growth has been estimated in 2015 (0.3%; CBS, 2016). For 2016 preliminary data of the Central Bank of Curaao and St. Maarten suggest that economic growth in Curaao remained flat (0.0%; CBCS, 2017). 3.2.3 Industry and occupation In 2016 t he majority of the employed population continued to work in the industry of wholesale and retail trade repair of motor vehicles and In 201 6 16.8% of the employed population rep orted this economic activity (Table 6 ). T here has been a slight de crease in this sector in 201 6 in comparison to 201 5 Beside the largest share of the employed population continued to work Table 6 Economic activity of e mployed population, September October 2014, 2015, and 2016 Percentage 2014 2015 2016 Agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining, and quarrying 0.6 0.2 0.3 Manufacturing 7.2 6.1 5.7 Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply 0.7 1.2 0.7 Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities 1.2 1.1 1.2 Construction 6.6 6.5 7.9 Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles 16.8 17.4 16.8 Transportation and storage 5.3 5.3 4.9 Accommodation and food service activities 8.9 8.4 9.1 Information and communication 3.2 2.8 2.9 Financial and insurance activities 7.1 7.5 7.2 Real estate activities 0.7 0.6 1.4 Professional, scientific and technical activities 3.7 3.4 4.1 Administrative and support service activities 5.6 6.5 6.7 Public administration and defence; compulsory social security 8.4 6.6 7.1 Education 4.9 4.3 4.7 Human health and social work activities 9.7 9.7 8.8 Arts, entertainment and recreation 2.5 2.5 3.4 Other service activities 2.3 2.7 2.0 Activities of households as employers; undifferentiated goods and services producing activities of households for own use 2.9 3.3 3.7 Activities of extraterritorial organizations and bodies 0.4 0.3 0.3 Unknown/not reported 1.3 3.7 1.3

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LFS Cura ao 2016 41 In terms of occupation, there were no significant differences in 2016 in comparison to 2015 (Table 7) I n 2016 the majority of the employ ed population continued to work and sales workers ( 18.2 % ) Furthermore, the percentage of reaching 17.6% of the employed population. Wh en l ooking at the most common occupation for men and women separately the same differences emerge as in 2015 While t he majority of the employed women work ( 21.7 % ), the majority of ( 19. 8 % ). Table 7 Occupation of employed population, September October 2014, 2015 and 2016, by sex Men (%) Women (%) Total (%) 2014 2015 2016 2014 2015 2016 2014 2015 2016 N=28,623 N=29,846 N=31,684 N=30,672 N=31,976 N=33,43 3 N=59,295 N=61,823 N=65,11 7 Armed forces 0.7 0.1 0.2 0.2 0 0 0.4 0.1 0.1 Managers 14.3 11.9 11.5 8.8 7.1 7.2 11.5 9.4 9.3 Professionals 9.0 7.4 6.9 12.2 12.4 12.6 10.7 10.0 9.8 Technicians and associate professionals 16.1 15.8 16.7 14.6 16.2 18.6 15.3 16.0 17.6 Clerical support workers 4.7 6.4 5.9 19.5 19.9 19.3 12.4 13.4 12.8 Service and sales workers 14.1 13.2 14.5 23.9 23.9 21.7 19.1 18.8 18.2 Skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers 0.3 0.6 0.3 0 0 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.2 Craft and related trades workers 19.7 18.7 19.8 2.1 0.7 2.2 10.6 9.4 10.8 Plant and machine operators, and assemblers 9.3 9.4 8.7 1.4 1.6 1.2 5.2 5.4 4.9 Elementary occupations 9.8 12.5 13.0 16.1 14.5 16.1 13.0 13.5 14.6 Unknown/not reported 2.1 3.9 2.4 1.4 3.7 0.9 1.7 3.7 1.6 3.2.4 Hours worked In 2016 t he median working hours per week of the employed population was 40 hours (IQR 36 40 ) T he employed population both men and women, worked this amount of hours in 2016 ( 59 7 % ; Table 8 ) although this percentage is lower in comparison to 2014 and 2015. In 2014 and 2015, respectively 64.3% and 65.3% of the employed population worked 40 hours a week The lower amount of working hours per week in 2016 reflects itself in the 25 th interquartile range o f the median working hours The 25 th interquartile range of the median working hours was higher in 2014 and 2015 (being 40 hours) in comparison to 2016 (being 36 hours) In addition, note the higher percentage of the employed population who worked 21 39 ho urs per week in 2016 (13.5%) in comparison to 2014 (9.6%) and 2015 (9.0%)

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LFS Cura ao 2016 42 Table 8 Total hours worked of employed population, September October 2014, 2015 and 2016, by sex Men (%) Women (%) Total (%) 2014 2015 2016 2014 2015 2016 2014 2015 2016 N=28,623 N=29,846 N=31,684 N=30,672 N=31,976 N=33,43 3 N=59,295 N=61,823 N=65,11 7 4 20 hours 8.9 8.4 8.8 13.1 12.8 14.7 11.1 10.8 11.9 21 39 hours 6.7 7.0 10.5 12.4 10.8 16.3 9.6 9.0 13.5 40 hours 65.6 66.1 61.6 63.6 64.5 57.9 64.3 65.3 59.7 41 60 hours 15.7 14.3 15.0 9.8 9.1 9.4 15.0 11.7 12.2 > 60 hours 2.2 1.8 1.8 0.6 0.4 0.6 1.4 1.1 1.2 Unknown/not reported 1.0 2.3 2.3 0.9 2.4 1.0 0.9 2.4 1.6 *Per week The percentage of employed persons working more than 40 hours during the LFS 2016 2 showed a slight increase in comparison to the survey held in 2015. The proportion of employed persons who worked more than 40 hours moved from 12.8% in September October 20 15 to 13.4% in September October 2016. However, the share of employed persons who worked between 4 and 39 hours increased in 2016 ( 25.4% ) in comparison to 2015 ( 19.8% ). In terms of gender, a pproximately 17 % of men and 10% of women work ed more than 40 hour s a week in 2016 A similar situation existed in 2015, where 16% of men and 10% of women worked more than 40 hours. When looking at the mean working hours a week, men continue d to work significantly more hours per week than women in 2016 (men: 38.7 hours, women: 35.7 hours, p<0.01). 3.2.5 Looking for more work and second work Of the employed population 15.3 % was looking for more work ing hours and 15.2 % was looking for a second job in 2016. These percentages of employed persons looking for more work or second work in 2016 is higher in comparison to 2015 where 9.4% of the employed population was looking for more working hours and 10.4% was looking for a second job. Of the persons who w ere looking for more working hours in 2016, 52.1% was working less than 40 hours per week, 37.5% was working 40 hours per week, 8.5% was working more than 40 hours per week, and 1.9% did not report how many hours they were working. For the persons who were looking for a second job, fairly similar percentages were found. Of the persons who were looking for a second job in 2016, 41.8% was working less than 40 hours a week, 46.8% was working 40 hours a week, 10.8% was working more than 40 hours a week, and 0.6 % did not report how many hours they were working.

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LFS Cura ao 2016 43 The majority of the employed population who was not looking for more working hours was already working 40 hours per week in their current job (78.7%). This was also the case for the employed population who was not looking for a second job, 76.6% was working 40 hours a week in their current employment. Of the employed population who was looking for a second job, t he need for more income continue d to be the main rea s on for looking for a second job I n 2016 54.9 % of the employed persons who were looking for a second job reported this. When looking at the above mentioned figures in this paragraph for both sexes there were no significant differences between men and women I n 2016 4 5 % of the employed population reported having more than one job. Of the persons who said having more than one job, the majority ( 79 3 %) reported one additional job.

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LFS Cura ao 2016 44 3.3 Unemployed population The unemployed population includes all persons of 15 years and older who during the research period did not have a job or a business of their own and had actively been seeking work are available to start working or start a business. In September October 201 6 there were 9,953 persons unemployed which are 1,755 persons (21.4%) more than in September October 2015 The unemployment rate was 13.3% in September October 2016. This was an increase of 1.6 percentage points compared with the unemployment rate in September October 2015, being 11.7% However, since the LFS is a sample survey, the unemployment rate is an estimate that may be subject to sampling errors. T he unemployment rate in 2016 has a margin of error of 1.3% on both sides, for a confidence interval of 95% Nevertheless, to maintain the precision of the unemployment rate different procedures were applied during the implementation phase of the survey to keep the non response as low as possible Figure 7 gives an overview of the development of the unemployment rate in Curaao over the 1992 201 6 period Figure 7 Development of the unemployment rate in Curaao, 1992 201 6

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LFS Cura ao 2016 45 With the e xception of a few years the unemployment rate increased in the period 1992 2005. Between 2005 and 2009, this percentage declined every year, but increased again in the 2009 2013 period. In 2014 and 2015, the unemployment rate decreased slightly and an increase was visible again in 2016. 3.3.1 Highest level of education and willingness to complete an education Table 9 shows the percentage of the highest level of education of the unemployed population of Curaao in September October 2016 The highest level of education of the unemployed population is lower than that of the employed population The majority of the un employed (men and women) population in 2016 had the first stage of the second level as their highest level of educati on, 38.7% This is similar as in 2014 and 2015, although the share was lower in 2016 in comparison to 2014 and 2015. See Appendix 1 for an overview of the way the educational system is classified Table 9 Highest level of education of unempl oyed population September October 2014, 2015 and 2016, by sex Men (%) Women (%) Total (%) 2014 2015 2016 2014 2015 2016 2014 2015 2016 N=3,658 N=3,507 N= 4,222 N=4,897 N=4,691 N= 5,731 N=8,555 N=8,198 N= 9,953 Current daytime education 1 3.5 8.0 11.5 3.0 3.9 9.4 3.2 5.7 10.3 No education -3.3 0 -1.9 3.6 -2.5 2.1 Elementary 1 10.4 6.9 13.2 6.9 6.7 6.8 8.4 6.8 9.5 Second level, first stage 1 43.6 52.3 41.0 43.0 39.7 37.0 43.3 45.1 38.7 Second level, second stage 1 27.4 20.9 23.9 34.4 37.7 35.0 31.4 30.5 30.3 Third level 1 10.2 7.8 10.4 11.0 10.1 7.7 10.6 9.1 8.8 Unknown/not reported -0.8 0 -0 0.6 -0.3 0.3 1 Current daytime education = currently attending a daytime education Second level, first stage = VSBO, HAVO years 1+2, VWO years 1+2 or equivalent Second level, second stage = HAVO years 3+4+5, VWO years 3+4+5+6, SBO, MBO or equivalent Third level = HBO, WO, and postdoctoral or equivalent -se percentages are therefore not presented. In 2016 44.7 4 % of the unemployed population who was not attending a day time education at the time of the survey was willing to complete an (additional) education, while 52.0% was not willing to complete an (additional) education. One percent (1.4 % ) was attending an evening education at the moment of the survey and 1.9 % did not state an answer to this matter.

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LFS Cura ao 2016 46 3.3.2 Duration of unemployment The unemployed population consists of person s who are actively looking for work and persons who want to start their own business. The duration of unemployment o f the persons w ho were actively looking for a job was measured. The majority of the persons who were actively seeking work in 2016 ha d been unemployed between 1 and 12 months, 45 .2% (Table 10 ) Note that there was also a high proportion who had been unemployed for a year or longer A similar situation existed in 2014 and 2015 as well. In addition the trend of a higher percentage of women (in comparison to men) being unemployed for a year or longer continued in 2016 Table 10 Duration of unemployment September October 2014, 2015 and 2016, by sex Men (%) Women (%) Total (%) 2014 2015 2016 2014 2015 2016 2014 2015 2016 N=3,533 N=3,199 N=3,737 N=4,662 N=4,167 N=5,312 N=8,195 N=7,366 N= 9,049 Less than 1 month 7.6 6.0 7.7 6.7 3.4 8.6 7.1 4.5 8.2 1 3 months 1 19.0 12.7 18.0 13.6 18.5 13.2 3 6 months 1 13.8 15.9 7.6 13.3 10.3 14.4 6 12 months 1 20.2 22.4 22.3 14.1 21.4 17.6 Between 1 12 months 2 43.7 53.0 51.0 43.9 47.9 41.0 43.8 50.2 45.2 12 months or longer 36.7 39.0 41.3 39.9 48.7 49.9 38.5 44.5 4 6.3 Unknown/not reported 12.0 1.9 0 9.5 0 0.5 10.6 0.8 0. 3 1 A vailable from 2015 onwards 2 From 2015 onwards this figure is the sum of the categories 1 3 months, 3 6 months, and 6 12 months. retail trade, repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles 3.3.3 Methods of looking for work Visiting companies per sonally remained the method that the majority of the unemployed persons who were actively looking for work in 2016 used in order to ask for a job 4 5.4 % (Table 11 ). Approximately, o ne out of every four unemployed persons ( 24.2% ) wrote an application letter to a company. Table 11 Methods of looking for work by unemployed population September October 2014, 2015 and 2016, by sex Men (%) Women (%) Total (%) 2014 2015 2016 2014 2015 2016 2014 2015 2016 N=3,533 N=3,199 N=3,737 N=4,662 N=4,167 N=5,312 N=8,195 N=7,366 N=9,049 Visited companies personally 42.6 45.0 51.0 39.7 36.3 41.5 40.9 40.0 45.4 Wrote application letter 20.5 23.7 16.2 29.3 27.0 29.9 25.6 25.6 24.2

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LFS Cura ao 2016 47 Table 1 1 continue Methods of looking for work by unemployed population September October 2014, 2015 and 2016, by sex Men (%) Women (%) Total (%) 2014 2015 2016 2014 2015 2016 2014 2015 2016 N=3,533 N=3,199 N=3,737 N=4,662 N=4,167 N=5,312 N=8,195 N=7,366 N=9,049 Responded to advertisements non online 1 2.0 3.8 4.4 5.2 3.4 4.6 Responded to advertisements online 1 6.8 5.2 8.7 7.7 7.9 6.7 Responded to advertisements 2 2.8 8.8 9.0 6.4 13.1 12.9 4.8 11.3 11.3 Through private agencies 1,3 4.9 3.6 7.4 2.4 6.3 2.9 Through the SOAW Ministry 1,4 1.7 1.8 5.8 3.8 4.0 2.9 Through private agencies or the SOAW Ministry 3,4,5 5.2 6.6 5.4 2.2 13.2 6.2 3.5 10.3 5.8 Through friends or family 13.5 13.6 13.2 8.3 10.5 7.9 10.5 11.9 10.1 Other 14.4 2.2 5.2 13.5 0 1.6 13.9 1.0 3.1 Unknown/not reported 0.9 0 0 0.6 0 0 0.7 0 0 SOAW = Social Development, Labour, and Welfare 1 Only available in 2015 and 2016 2 In 2015 and 2016 3 4 5 In 2015 and 2016 3.3.4 Youth unemployment Y outh unemployment is widely viewed as an important policy issue for many countries, regardless of their stage of development ( International Labour Organization, 2015) The youth covers persons between the ages of 15 to 24 years. Globally, unemployment rates in this group are typica lly higher than those in adults According to the ILO, t he average youth unemployment rate in Latin America and the Caribbean increased by nearly three percentage points in 2016, reaching 18.3%, which is the highest unemployment rate in decade (ILO, 2017). There are various reasons why the youth unemployment rates are often high. For instance, on the supply side, young persons might engage in short periods of unemployment as they gain experience and look around for an appropriate job. Furthermore, because of the opening and closing of educat ional institutions over the course of the year, young students are far more likely to enter and exit the labour force as they move between employment, school enrolment, and unemployment. In addition, mismatch between education/skills on the one hand and em ployment on the other hand hampers the likelihoods for the youth to enter the labour market.

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LFS Cura ao 2016 48 The youth unemployment rate in Cura ao in September October 2016 was 3 6.8 % which is an increase of 7.1 percentage point in comparison to the youth unemployment rate measured in September October 2015 (29.7%). In September October 2016, almost 2,600 young people were unemployed. Further analysis revealed that the majority of the se youngsters who were unemployed in 2016 were following a day time education one year previous to the survey. Forty percent (44.4%) were attending a day time education in September October 2015, 30.1% were searching for work, 15.7% was working, and 9.8% w as not in education, employment or training When analysing unemployment for the youth population it is useful to take certain matter s into account. I t is useful to know the ratio of the youth unemployment rate to the total unemployment rate. Furthermore it is meaningful to identify the current status of the youth on attending a day time education. Ratio youth unemployment rate to total unemployment rate and adult unemployment rate The ratio of youth unemployment rate to total unemployment rate was 2.8 i n 2016. In 2014 and 2015, this figure was respectively 2.6 and 2.5. The ratio of youth unemployment rate to total unemployment rate gives an indication on the consistency between the youth unemployment in relation to the total unemployment. However, the IL O suggests to calculate the ratio of the youth unemployment rate to the adult unemployment rate (25 years and older). The ratio of youth unemployment rate to adult unemployment rate is an international measure used to express the severity of youth unemployment. The adult unemployment rate measured in September October 2016 was 10.8%. Consequently, the ratio of the youth unemployment rate to adult unemployment rate in Curaao was 3.4 in 2016. The average ratio youth unemployment rate to adult u nemployment rate for Latin America and the Caribbean was 3.1 in 2016 (ILO, 2017) Status on attending a day time education In 2016 31.6 % of the unemployed persons aged 15 24 in Cura ao were attending day time education. In other words, about three of every ten young persons seeking work was receiving a daytime school education at the time of the LFS 2016 2 which could have hamper ed their being completely available to accept a job and actually start working. Nevertheless, the absolute figures on th is matter are low and therefore caution has to be taken when interpreting these results. It is i mportant to note that in the year 2016 11.2% of the unemployed young persons in Cura ao were younger than 18 years and thus probably subject to the law on comp )

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LFS Cura ao 2016 49 Nevertheless, it should be mention ed that said law ceases to apply at the moment a person receive s a second level education ( e.g. ) diploma or equivalent, which could also be the case b efore the age of 18 19 de juli 1991 houdende bepalingen tot regeling van de leerplicht PB 1991, no. 85 artikel 3

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LFS Cura ao 2016 50 3.4 Economically not active population The economically not active population, also referred to as the population not in the labour force, includes those persons of 15 years and older who during the research period of the LFS 2016 2 did not have a job or own a business and were not actively seeking work. In September October 2016, the siz e of the economically not active population was 5 2,268 persons This is a decrease of 3,402 persons (6.1%) in comparison to the survey held in September October 2015. Of those who were not in the labour force, 20,308 were men and 31,960 were women. Th e decrease of those not in in the labour force was visible in both sexes However, the decrement was greater in men than in women, being 7.7 % and 5.1 % respectively. In terms of age, t he decrease in the size of the economically not active population in 201 6 in comparison to 201 5 was with the exception of the age groups 25 3 4 years and 65+ years, visible in all age groups. The largest percentage decrease was in the age group 45 54 years, being 23.3 % Whereas the largest decrease in absolute numbers was among the youngsters ( 15 24 years ) being 1,527 persons (11.1%) 3.4.1 Highest level of education Table 1 2 shows the percentage of the highest level of education of the economically not active population of Curaao in September October 2016 The majority of the economically not active population ( both men and women) continue d to have the same highest level of education as the majority of the unemployed population, that being the first stage of the second level, 30.5 % respectively. See Append ix 1 for an overview of the way the educational system is classified. Table 12 Highest level of education of economically not active population September October 2014, 2015 and 2016, by sex Men (%) Women (%) Total (%) 2014 2015 2016 2014 2015 2016 2014 2015 2016 N=22,112 N=22,004 N=20,307 N=33,759 N=33,667 N=31,960 N=55,871 N=55,670 N=52,267 Current daytime education 1 28.0 27.7 27.3 22.6 21.5 20.4 24.8 24.0 23.1 No education -2.5 3.4 -3.9 4.6 -3.3 4.1 Elementary 1 16.7 18.0 15.6 21.1 22.5 22.0 19.3 20.7 19.5 Second level, first stage 1 29.2 30.7 29.2 34.0 32.1 31.2 32.1 31.5 30.5 Second level, second stage 1 11.6 11.6 14.4 11.0 11.0 13.4 11.3 11.2 13.8

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LFS Cura ao 2016 51 Table 12 continue Highest level of education of economically not active population September October 2014, 2015 and 2016, by sex Men (%) Women (%) Total (%) 2014 2015 2016 2014 2015 2016 2014 2015 2016 N=22,112 N=22,004 N=20,307 N=33,759 N=33,667 N=31,960 N=55,871 N=55,670 N=52,267 Third level 1 7.8 8.4 9.6 5.5 6.9 7.5 6.4 7.5 8.3 Unknown/not reported -1.2 0.4 -2.1 0.9 -1.7 0.7 1 Current daytime education = currently attending a daytime education Second level, first stage = VSBO, HAVO years 1+2, VWO years 1+2 or equivalent Second level, second stage = HAVO years 3+4+5, VWO years 3+4+5+6, SBO, MBO or equivalent Third level = HBO, W O, and postdoctoral or equivalent -percentages are therefore not presented. 3.4.2 Reasons for economically not active The majority of the economically not active persons 2016 reason for not seeking work 51.5 % (Table 13 ) This was similar as in the surveys conducted in 2014 and 2015. Want ing to finish school or study was also an important reason for not seeking work in 2016 23. 7 % For women, being homemakers was also an important reason. Over the period 2014 2016, the percentage of the reason for being out of the labour force showed a decreasing trend. Table 13 Reasons for not looking for work by economically not active population September October 2014, 2015 and 2016, by sex Men (%) Women (%) Total (%) 2014 2015 2016 2014 2015 2016 2014 2015 2016 N=22,112 N=22,004 N= 20,307 N=33,759 N=33,667 N= 31,960 N=55,871 N=55,670 N= 52,267 Homemakers 0 0 0.3 13.6 14.2 11.1 8.2 8.6 6. 9 Belief there is no work available 6.1 5.2 0.9 4.5 3.3 1.8 5.1 4.0 1.5 Pensioner/age 49.3 49.2 53.1 45.5 46.4 50.4 47.0 47.5 51.5 Wanting to finish school/study 29.2 28.3 28. 7 22.7 21.0 20.5 25.2 23.8 23. 7 Family circumstances 1.7 2.0 2.1 1.7 2.9 3.3 1.7 2.6 2.8 Physical/mental illness 10.7 9.1 9.0 9.7 8.9 8.6 10.1 9.1 8.7 Other reason 2.6 5.7 3.4 1.5 3.0 3.4 2.0 4.0 3.4 Unknown/not reported 0.4 0.5 2.3 0.9 0.3 1.0 0.7 0.4 1.5

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LFS Cura ao 2016 52 References Baker, R. P., Bradburn, N. M., & Johnson, R. A. (1995). Computer assisted Personal Interviewing: An Experimental Evaluation of Data Quality and Cost. Journal of Official Statistics, 413 431. Bureau, U. S. Census (2015). Census and Survey Processing System (CSPro). Retrieved October 14, 2015 from http://www.census.gov/population/international/software/cspro/ Burgerl ijk Wetboek Boek 7A. (n.d.). Centraal Wettenregister. (2013). Arbeidsverordening 2013. ClassApps. (2015). Retrieved October 14, 2015 from http://www.classapps.com/ International Labour Organization. (2015). Key Ind icators of the Labour Market 2015 (KILM): Education and labour market. Retrieved December 4, 2015 from http://www.ilo.org/global/sta tistics and databases/research and databases/kilm/WCMS_421999/lang -en/index.htm International Labour Organization. (2017). ILOSTAT. Retrieved January 9, 2017 from http://www.ilo.org/ilostat/faces/oracle/webcen ter/portalapp/pagehierarchy/Page21.jspx?_afrLoop=15 64592893214319&_afrWindowMode=0&_afrWindowId=zziqe65vr_30#!%40%40%3F_afrWindowId% 3Dzziqe65vr_30%26_afrLoop%3D1564592893214319%26_afrWindowMode%3D0%26_adf.ctrl state%3Dzziqe65vr_66 International Labour Orga nization. (2016). 2016 Labor overview of Latin America and the Caribbean. Retrieved December 16, 2016 from http://www.ilo.org/global/about the ilo/newsroom/news/WCMS_538067/lang -en/index.htm Jansen, I. & Varlack G. (2017). Economic growth and labor market in Curaao, 2013 2015. Modus Statistisch Magazine, Jaargang 14, No. 3+4 Eurofound. (2015). European Observatory of Working Life (EurWORK), Labour Market. Retrieved October 14, 2015 from http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/areas/labourmarket/index Eurostat. (2015). Eurostat Statistics Explained. Retrieved October 14, 2015 from http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics explained/index.php/Glossary:Labour_market Hussmanns, R. (2007). Measurement of employment, unemployment and underemployment Current international standards and issues in their application. Lake, Z. (2013). Methodologie van het Arbeidskrachtenonderzoek. Willemstad, Curaao: Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. Ministry of Economic Development. (2015). Business Census Korsou 2014. Retr ieved October 14, 2015 from http://www.businesscensus.cw/en/census

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LFS Cura ao 2016 53 Organisation for Economic Co operation and Development (2016). Informal Employment and the Economic Crisis. Retrieved January 4, 2 017 from http://www.oecd.org/dev/poverty/informalemploymentandtheeconomiccrisis.htm

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LFS Cura ao 201 6 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 201 7 54 Appendices

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LFS Cura ao 201 6 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 201 7 55 Appendix 1: Classifications in the LFS Education Education is classified according to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED 1997). In this report a compact version of the ISCED was used, with the following categories: 1. No education 2. Elementary education 3. Second level education, first stage 4. Second level education, first stage 5. Third level education Postdoctoral courses Industry (sector) Industry is classified according to the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC rev. 4). The following main categories were used in this report: 1. Agriculture, forestry and fishing 2. Mining and quarrying 3. Manufacturing 4. Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply 5. Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities

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LFS Cura ao 201 6 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 201 7 56 6. Construction 7. Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles 8. Transportation and storage 9. Accommodation and food service activities 10. Information and commu nication 11. Financial and insurance activities 12. Real estate activities 13. Professional, scientific and technical activities 14. Administrative and support service activities 15. Public administration and defence; compulsory social security 16. Education 17. Human health and social work activities 18. Arts, entertainment and recreation 19. Other service activities 20. Activities of households as employers; undiffe rentiated goods and services producing activities of households for own use 21. Activities of extraterritorial organizations and bodies Occupation Occupation is classified according to the International Standard Classification of Occupation (ISCO 08). The following main categories were used in this report: 1. Armed forces 2. Man agers 3. Professionals 4. Technicians and associate professionals 5. Clerical support workers 6. Service and sales workers 7. S killed agricultural, forestry and fishery workers 8. Craft and related trades workers 9. Plant and machine operators and assemble rs 10. Elementary occupations

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LFS Cura ao 201 6 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 201 7 57 Appendix 2: Table age group 55+ years Table 14 Labour force of Curaao, September October 2014, 2015 and 2016, by age group: 55+ years 55+ years Sept. Oct. 2014 Sept. Oct. 2015 Sept. Oct. 2016 Mutations 2014 2015 Percentage mutations 2014 2015 Mutations 2015 2016 Percentage mutations 2015 2016 Employed population 11,364 12,287 13,807 923 8.1 1,520 12.4 Unemployed population 783 912 1,045 129 16.5 133 14.6 Labour force 12,147 13,199 14,852 1,052 8.7 1,653 12.5 Economically not active population 31,513 31,818 31,643 305 1.0 175 0.6 Population 55+ years 43,660 45,017 46,495 697 4.1 1,478 3.3 Participation rate (%) 27.8 29.3 31.9 1.5 2.6* Unemployment rate (%) 6.5 6.9 7.0 0.4 0.1* Employment/population 55+ years (%) 26.0 27.3 29.7 1.3 2.4* Percentage points

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LFS Cura ao 201 6 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 201 7 58 Append ix 3: Population of Curaao 2015 201 6 T able 15 Population of Cura ao 201 5 and 201 6 1 Total population 1 October 201 5 Net inflow / outflow Death Immigration Emigration 1 October 201 6 Net migration Total change 0 4 years 9,921 1602 21 433 329 9 787 104 134 5 14 years 19,863 162 1 591 526 19 765 65 98 15 24 years 19,569 412 16 956 1 354 19 567 398 2 25 34 years 17,882 49 17 1 373 807 18 382 566 500 35 44 years 19,856 593 33 832 491 19 571 341 285 45 54 years 24,738 183 88 624 387 24 704 237 34 55 64 years 21,804 666 176 357 235 22 416 122 612 65+ years 24,669 1 916 1,026 213 188 25 584 25 915 Total 158,302 1,378 5 379 4 317 159 776 1,062 1,474 Men population 1 October 201 5 Net inflow / outflow Death Immigration Emigration 1 October 201 6 Net migration Total change 0 4 years 5 060 859 11 217 184 4 994 33 66 5 14 years 10 144 100 1 329 282 10 090 47 54 15 24 years 9 848 300 10 463 657 9 944 194 96 25 34 years 8 009 38 12 631 354 8 312 277 303 35 44 years 8 625 309 24 439 260 8 471 179 154 45 54 years 10 900 22 61 314 185 10 946 129 46 55 64 years 9 479 290 111 170 103 9 725 67 246 65+ years 10 251 826 489 94 77 10 605 17 354 Total 72 316 935 719 2 657 2 102 73 087 555 771 1 Including institutionalized persons

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LFS Cura ao 201 6 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 201 7 59 Table 1 5 continue. Population of Cura ao 201 5 and 201 6 1 Wom en population 1 October 2014 Net inflow / outflow Death Immigration Emigration 1 October 2015 Net migration Total change 0 4 years 4 861 743 10 216 145 4 793 71 68 5 14 years 9 719 62 0 262 244 9 675 18 44 15 24 years 9 721 112 6 493 697 9 623 204 98 25 34 years 9 873 87 5 742 453 10 070 289 197 35 44 years 11 231 284 9 393 231 11 100 162 131 45 54 years 13 838 161 27 310 202 13 758 108 80 55 64 years 12 325 376 65 187 132 12 691 55 366 65+ years 14 418 1 090 537 119 111 14 979 8 561 Total 85 986 855 659 2 722 2 215 86 689 507 703 1 Including institutionalized persons