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Social Relations in the population of Curaçao

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Social Relations in the population of Curaçao

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social cohesion
sociale cohesie
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S ocial Relations in the Population of Curaao 2015 Social Cohesion Survey Results N icole T. Wever MSc.

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Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao Adress: WTC Building, Piscaderabay z/n Phone: ( 599 9 ) 839 2300 Email: info@cbs.cw Website: www.cbs.cw Facebook: www.facebook.cw/cbscur Copyright Willemstad, Central Bureau of Statistics 2017 The contents of this publication may be quoted, provided that the source is mentioned accurately and clearly ISBN: 978 99904 5 062 0

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 1 Preface This publication presents findings of the Social Cohesion Survey conducted by the Central Bureau for Statistics (CBS) Curaao in 2015 2016. This is the first time that such a survey is conducted in Curaao. Based on social discussions and political debates held through the years, the CBS conc luded that there exists a need in the community of Curaao for research on a number of subjects within the realm of social cohesion. After extensively reviewing the existing literature on social cohesion, consulting other local and international literatur e and speaking to important actors in the local cultural sector, a number of topics which could be used in measuring social cohesion in a specifically Curaaoan context were selected, namely: subjective wellbeing, trust participation, inclusion, social mo bility, social engagement and, finally, norms and values. In order to gather an idea of the state of Social Cohesion on the island, respondents were on society is dynami c and depends on prevailing circumstances, which is why it is important to view the Social Cohesion Survey too as a dynamic survey, one that must continue to develop and be repeated if we are to obtain an increasingly accurate view on this subject. Drs. S de Boer Director of the CBS

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 2 Acknowledgements First of all, the project leader for this survey would like to thank her coworkers at the CBS for all their contributions and support to the Social Cohesion Survey. These include: of the Fieldwork department, the former head of fieldwork (Ms. Maria Duindam), the current head of fieldwork (Ms. Lizmari Fecunda Manuela), survey coordinators (Ms. Kwailang Lai and Ms. Mary Conquet Provence), checkers (Ms. Ronalda Alves, Ms Iris Scherptong and Ms. Ruth Damberg), encoders (Ms. Ruthmila Eisden and Ms. Filomena Valks), verifiers, and the 52 surveyors, for carrying out the survey. We wish to thank the personnel of the automation and methodology departments for ensuring the qua lity of the data, Ms. Lysandra de Meza for preparing the scan forms and for the programming necessary for data processing, Mr. Gregory Lai for scanning the scan forms and Mr. Leander Kuijvenhoven for performing the cluster analysis, sampling and estimation of the database. We also wish to thank all CBS coworkers who, through consultations, contributed to this survey, in particular the former head of the SDS Department (Mike Jacobs), the acting head of the SDS department (Ms. Ellen Maduro) and the head of th e Publication and Information Department (Ms. Harely Martina) who ingeniously worked to create awareness of this survey among the public. Last, but certainly not least, we would like to thank all organizations and actors who contributed to this survey as s takeholders: the Ministry of Social Development, Labor and Wellbeing, Kas di Kultura, UNESCO Curaao, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports and Science, the National Archeological Anthropological Memory (NAAM), Unidat di Bario and independent expert, Ms. Rose Mary Allen.

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 3 Samenvatting Sociale cohesie verwijst naar hoe het gesteld is met de burgers van een land voor wat betreft het gevoel van saamhorigheid, onderlinge betrokkenheid en verantwoordelijkheid voor de gemeenschap. Om een beeld te krijgen i n hoe het hiermee gesteld is op Curaao is met behulp van internationale en lokale literatuur en met gesprekken met lokale actoren in het culturele veld een vragenlijst opgesteld met onderwerpen die relevant zijn voor het meten van de sociale cohesie binne n de Curaaose situatie. Voor dit onderzoek werd gebruik gemaakt van een gestratificeerde steekproef met proportionele allocatie. In totaal hebben 2626 respondenten meegedaan aan het onderzoek. De data is gecorrigeerd voor vertekeningen ten opzichte van d e populatie met behulp van een wegingsfactor en is opgehoogd. Om een beeld te krijgen van de wijze waarop verschillende groepen binnen de Curaaose bevolking naar de verschillende onderwerpen kijken zijn er enkele uitsplitsingen getoetst namelijk, SES buur tniveau, Leeftijd, Geslacht en Geboorteplaats. Enkele interessante resultaten uit het onderzoek zijn: Subjectief welzijn ; afhankelijk van de getoetste uitsplitsingen is er zowel consensus als verschillen te zien in hoe de bevolking de kwaliteit van het lev en ervaart. Vertrouwen ; de mate van vertrouwen van de Curaaose bevolking in anderen en in instanties is laag. Participatie ; de mate van participatie van bevolking van Curaao verschilt over alle getoetste uitsplitsingen heen. Inclusie ; men staat vrij open voor anderen binnen de samenleving en is erg trots op Curaao. Sociale Mobiliteit ; die te maken heeft met de opwaartse of neerwaartse beweging van mensen binnen de samenleving laat in de getoetste uitsplitsingen zien dat er verschillen in de Curaaose bev olking te constateren zijn voor wat betreft ontwikkelingen in de sociale positie voor zichzelf en voor wat betreft de toekomst van de kinderen. Sociale betrokkenheid ; men is positief over de buurt waar men woont en er is eensgezindheid over de verschillend e uitsplitsingen heen als het gaat om onderwerpen over solidariteit naar anderen toe. Als laatste is er consensus over de meeste uitsplitsingen heen als het gaat om wat de richtlijnen zijn voor wat goed en kwaad zijn. Doordat het de eerste keer is dat dit onderzoek in de huidige vorm op Curaao en in de regio is uitgevoerd bestaat er nog geen formule om een eenduidig antwoord te geven op de staat van sociale cohesie op Curaao. De resultaten kunnen per onderwerp wel een indicatie geven over hoe de bevolkin g van Curaao over de verschillende aspecten van sociale cohesie denkt. Deze eerste meting kan in de toekomst gebruikt worden als ijkpunt waaraan de resultaten van de volgende meting, die over 5 jaar plaats zal vinden, kunnen worden weerlegd.

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 4 Summary Social cohesion measures the sense of unity, mutual involvement and community cohesion on Curaao, a questionnaire was prepared after consulting local and international literature as well as actors in the local cultural sector, with questions on different subjects required in order to measure social cohesion within the community of Curaao. Stratified sampling with proportional allocation was used for the survey. A total of 2626 respondents participated. A weighting factor was applied to correct for distortions with respect to the population and the figures were grossed up. To describe the views of distinct groups in the Curaaoan community on the different subjects, a nu mber of demographic groups were analyzed in the survey, namely neighborhood SES level, age, sex and country of birth. The following are some interesting results: Subjective wellbeing : Varying by surveyed demographic group, both agreements and Confidence: In the Curaaoan population, the level of trust in others and in institutions is low. Participation: surveyed demographic groups. Inclusion: Members of the community are relatively open toward others, and there is a high level of pride about Curaao. Social Mobility: This refers to th e upward or downward movement of people within society. The demographic groups well as to the future social development they expect for their children. Social Engagement: People feel positively about their neighborhood and there is agreement across all demographic groups on matters involving solidarity toward others. Finally, there is also consensus across most demographic groups with respect to the guidelines on good and e vil. As this was the first time this survey was held in its present form in Curaao and the region, there is as yet no formula available providing an unequivocal answer on the state of social cohesion on the island. The results can, however, provide an ind ication of how the population thinks about different social cohesion related issues. In the future, these initial measurements may be used as benchmarks with which to compare the results of the next survey, to be held in 5 years.

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 5 Resmen Koheshon sosial ta un ekspreshon ku ta refer na e grado di solidaridat, enbolbimentu sosial i sentido di responsabilidat pa komunidat ku ta biba bou di e habitantenan di un pais. Pa haa un bista di e grado di koheshon sosial na Krsou, a konsult literatura lokal i inte rnashonal i ku personahenan aktivo riba tereno di kultura, i despues, a base di esei, a prepar un kuestionario ku pregunta riba algun tema tokante kua tin mester di informashon pa por midi koheshon sosial den komunidat di e isla. A usa un muestra stratifi k di e poblashon den kua tur nivel di sosiedat ta represent proporshonalmente, i na tur, 2626 persona a partisip den e enkuesta. Pa koreg kaminda repartishon di e gruponan demogrfiko den e muestra no a kuadra kompletamente ku e poblashon total, a apli riba e datonan i a base di esei a hisa e sifranan. A distingu algun grupo demogr fiko, esta, st tus sosial ekon miko di bario, edat, sekso i lug di nasementu, pa por ha a sa ki punto di bista kada grupo di poblashon di Krsou t in riba diferente tema. Aki ta sigui algun resultado interesante di e enkuesta: Bienestar suphetivo: Por mira tantu akuerdo komo diferensia di opinion den e manera ku e poblashon ta eksperensi nan kalidat di bida. Esaki ta varia di un grupo demogrfiko pa otro. Konfiansa: E nivel di konfiansa ku poblashon di Krsou tin den hende i institushon ta abou. Partisipashon: E nivel di partisipashon di poblashon di Krsou ta diferente pa kada grupo demogrfiko enkuest. Inklushon: Tin un aktitut relativamente habr tokante otro miembronan di komunidat i un grado haltu di orguyo tokante Krsou. Mobilidat sosial: Esaki ta refer na kon hende ta subi f baha di posishon sosial ekonmiko den komunidat. Den e gruponan demogrfiko enkuest, por mira diferensia den desaroy o sosial personal premir di e individuonan i tambe den e desaroyo sosial premir pa nan yunan den futuro. Enbolbimentu sosial: E habitantenan ta positivo tokante e bario kaminda nan ta biba, i den tur grupo demogrfiko tin konsenso riba tema ku tin aber k u solidaridat ku otro hende. Por ltimo, tambe tin konsenso den mayoria grupo demogrfiko tokante e normanan di kiko ta bon i malu. Ya ku esaki ta prom bes ku a tene e enkuesta ak den su forma aktual na Krsou i den region, ainda no tin un frmula pa mus tra na un manera definitivo kon e situashon di koheshon sosial ta na Krsou. No opstante, e resultadonan por duna s un indikashon di kiko e poblashon ta pensa riba diferente tema relashon ku koheshon sosial. Den futuro, por usa e resultadonan inisial ak komo referensia pa kompar ku e resultadonan di e siguiente enkuesta, ku lo tene aki sinku aa.

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Social relations in the population of Curaao 6 Contents Preface ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 1 Acknowledgements ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 2 Samenvatting ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 3 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 4 Resmen ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 5 Figures ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 7 Tables ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 8 Overview of Significant Differences in this Document ................................ ............................ 9 1 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 12 1.1 Purpose of the survey ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 12 1.2 Research questions ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 12 1.3 De finitions ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 13 2 Design ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 14 2.1 Socioeconomic Status (SES) ................................ ................................ .............................. 14 2.2 Data collection ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 15 2.3 Data processing ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 15 2.4 Data analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 16 2.5 Important note ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 16 3 Results ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 17 3.1 Subjective wel lbeing ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 17 3.2 Trust ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 19 3.3 Participation ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 23 3.4 Inclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 29 3.5 Social mobility ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 36 3.6 Social involvement ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 40 ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 43 3.8 Other subjects ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 44 4. Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 52 Bibliography ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 54

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 7 Figures Figure 1 SES level ................................ ................................ ..... 20 Figure 2 SES level ................................ ................... 20 Figure 3 SES level ..... 21 Figure 4 category ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 23 Figure 5 Labor market activity by neighborhood SES ................................ ................................ ............................... 24 Figure 6 Labor market activity by age ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 24 Figure 7 SES level ................................ .......................... 25 Figure 8 SES level ........................ 25 Figure 9 Intention to vote by neighborhood SES level ................................ ................................ .............................. 26 Figure 10 Intention to vote by age category ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 26 Figure 11 Intention to vote by gender ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 26 Figure 12 Intention to vote by place of birth ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 26 Figure 13 Perception on who is a true Curaaoan ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 30 Figure 14 ................................ ................................ ................................ 32 Figure 15 SES level ................ 32 Figure 16 ............................ 34 Figure 17 group ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 36 Figure 18 SES level ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 37 Figure 19 by neighborhood SES level ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 37 Figure 20 by age group ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 38 Figure 21 ................................ ................................ ................... 43 Figure 22 SES level ........................... 46 Figure 23 ................................ ............... 46 Figure 24 to day activities ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 47 Figure 25 .............................. 47 Figure 26 ................................ ................... 49 Figure 27 SES level ............................... 49 Figure 28 ................................ ................... 50

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 8 Tables Table 1 Distribution of Socioeconomic Characteristics ................................ ................................ .............................. 17 Table 2 Somewhat or very satisfied with different aspects of life (in total and by neighborhood SES level, in %) ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 18 Table 3 Somewhat or very satisfied with different aspects of life (by age category, in %) ................................ ... 18 Table 4 Somewhat or very satisfied with different aspects of life (by country of birth, in %) ............................. 18 Table 5 Future expectations by age category (in %) ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 19 Table 6 So mewhat or fully in agreement with the statements (by country of birth, in %) ................................ ... 20 Table 7 Trust in institutions or organizations (in %) ................................ ................................ ................................ 21 Table 8 Effects of corruption on different areas of life (in %) ................................ ................................ .................... 22 Table 9 Corruption affects different areas of life much or very much (per age category and country of birth, in %) ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 22 Table 10 Labor participation, categorized as either active or inactive ................................ ................................ ..... 24 Table 11 Discussing political topics often (by age category and gender, in %) ................................ ...................... 25 Table 12 Participation in different forms of political action (in %) ................................ ................................ .......... 26 Table 13 Have taken or are willing to take part in forms of political participation (per neighborhood SES and age category, in %) ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 27 Table 14 Participated in a form of political action or willing to do so (by gender and birth place, in %) .......... 27 Table 15 ................................ .. 27 Table 16 Yes, I am a member of or involved wit h the following organizations or activities (by neighborhood SES level and age category, in %) ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 29 Table 17 Somewhat or fully in agreement with statements on who is a true Curaaoan (total and by Neighborhood SES level, in %) ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 31 Table 18 ........... 33 Table 19 Objection to having p ersons with the listed characteristics as neighbors (by neighborhood SES level %) ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 33 Table 20 SES level, in %) .............. 34 Table 21 ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 35 Table 22 The most important factor to get ahead in life (total and by neighborhood SES level, in %) ............... 38 Table 23 Somewhat or fully in agreement with the statements on equal opportunity (total and by Neighborhood SES level, in %) ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 39 Table 24 Somewhat or fully in agreement with the statements on equal opportunity (by age category and country of birth, in %) ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 39 Table 25 Somewhat or fully in agreement with perceived neighborhood cohesion (total and by neighborhood SES level, in %) ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 41 ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 42 Table 27 ................................ ................... 42 eighborhood SES level and age category, in %) .......... 43 Table 29 In agreement with guidelines on good and evil (total and by neighborhoo d SES level, in %) ............ 44 Table 30 Top 3 Qualities ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 44 Table 31 Somewhat or fully in agreement with statements on the environment (total and by neighborhood SES level, in %) ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 45 Table 32 Household income sufficient to cover the following expenses without any problems (total and by neighborhood SES level, in %) ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 48 Table 33 ................................ ................................ ............................ 49 Table 34 Subjects looked up in the media (total and by neighborhood SES level, in %) ................................ ...... 50

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 9 Overview of Significant Differences in this Document 1 This publication exhaustively covers the results of the 2015 Social Cohesion Survey. For each of the survey questions, it was analyze d to what extent the answers given differ by demographic group : neighborhood SES level, age, sex and country of birth This overview is intended as an aid in locating information on any significant differences for the specific questions that interest the reader the most 1 Note: The exes in this table correspond to the number of possible combinations for each group. Among the age groups for exampl e, a maximum of 6 differences could be observed: between the 18 29 and 30 49 year olds, between the 18 29 and 50 64 year olds, between the 18 29 year olds and the 65+ group, between the 30 49 and 56 64 year olds, between the 30 49 year olds and the 65+ gro up, and between the 50 64 year olds and the 65+ group. Whenever differences are observed among all age categories, this is indicated by means of 6 exes; if five differences are observed, this is indicated by 5 exes, etc.

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 10

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 11

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 12 between persons Cartwright, 1950 1 Introduction Social cohesion is the extent to which people contribute to and feel that they are part of society. This is manifested among other things, in feelings of interconnectedness and in There is worldwide interest in the concept of social cohesion both in academic circles and in the social and political debate. In Curaao, there are ongoing discussions on issues such as trust, inclusion, culture, nation building and others, which relate to social cohesion (see Rmer et al., 2015; Schotborgh van de Ven & van Velzen, 2013; Rosalia, 2001; NDP, 2015). It is therefore socially relevant to look into the stat e of social cohesion in Curaao. To do so the Curaao C entral B ureau for S tatistics decided to conduct a survey on social cohesion the Social Cohesion Survey (SCO, by its Dutch acronym). to promote inclusion, encourage social involvement and participation, stimulate trust maintain existing norms and values and improv e upward mobility possibilities. To obtain a clear picture of social cohesion, it was important to understand how people perceive th e subject, which is why the questionnaire was designed to try to identify ons, opinions and experiences. B eing the first time that the Curaao CBS has carried out such a survey, it was important to consult a number of existing ( international ) questionnaires when compiling this one, choosing from them the most relevant questions for each topic. Additionally, to ensure a proper fit for the local environment, conversations were held with important actors on the cultural scene of Curaao and questions were incorporated from previous surveys held on the island, together with other, n ewly designed questions. This publication begins by expla i nin g the term social cohesion (Chapter 1), stating the central methodology are discussed next in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 elaborat es on the results of the survey, breaking down the results for each domain by neighborhood SES level, age, gender and country of birth In the last chapter, we present the conclusions. 1.1 Purpose of the survey The purpose of this survey is to get a view of the stat e of social cohesion in the population of Curaao. 1.2 Research questions The central question is: What is the stat e of social cohesion in Curaao?

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 13 To answer this question, the following sub questions are explicitly investigated: 1. What is the level of subjective wellbeing in Curaao? 2. What is the level of confidence in Curaao? 3. What is the level of participation in Curaao? 4. What is the level of inclusion in Curaao? 5. What is the level of social mobility in Curaao? 6. What is the le vel of social involvement in Curaao? 7. What is the level of norms and values in Curaao? 1.3 Definiti on s Inclusion: The extent to which people perceive that society allow s them to belong to it while at the same time permitting them to be themselves. Norms and values: The set of beliefs, decisions and actions by means of which people manifest what they consider to be right or wrong. Participation: in a societal context Social involvement: The level of social interconnec tion of people Social mobility: The upward and downward movement of individuals or groups of people from one generation to the next and between different strata in society. Subjective wellbeing: their own quality of life. Trust : be vulnerable in situations of uncertainty and dependence.

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 14 2 Design In view of the subject of this survey, it is useful to observe and compare the views on social cohesion held by people of different socioeconomic status. People status defines the social reality in which they live. In other words, status determines perspective of the world and can therefore shape and views. 2.1 Socioeconomic Status (SES) In view of this, it was decided to subdivide the neighborhoods of Curaao by socioeconomic status (SES), based on a cluster analysis in which the objects (in this case the neighborhoods) are grouped based on their characteristics The variables used to determine socioeconomic status usually include education, profession and income Additional criteria include capital, as well as cultural and/or social capital (Reynders, Nicaise & van Damme, 2005). However, for this survey, the onl y components included are the ones known to determine socioeconomic status, namely education, professional status and income. T o carry out the cluster analysis, the components need to be translated into concrete, measurable variables and be aggregated by n eighborhood. The data used in calculating the necessary variables were taken from the 2011 Census. The variables used were operationalized as follows: Education is determined by the level of education by neighborhood. The level of education is equal to the number of individuals older than 15 years with higher education per 100 individuals with lower education. Professional Status is operationalized as the percentage of working individuals per neighborhood Income is determined by the median household income and the median disposable income per person. The median household income per neighborhood is equal to the household income found in 50 percent of the observations which is a better measure of central tendency than the average household income as i t excludes any possible outliers in the observations. The median disposable income per person per neighborhood is calculated by first dividing the income of each household by the corresponding household size and then determining the median of the resulting values. The groups formed based on these components are subsets with shared characteristics. The neighborhoo ds within a particular group therefore have these characteristics in common. The analysis was applied to data obtained from the 2011 Census result ing in three neighborhood types (strata) for Curaao: low scoring, mid scoring and high scoring SES neighborh ood levels.

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 15 A s tratified sampl e of the non institutionalized population was selected from the was used, to ensure that the distribution of SES neighborhood levels would be reflected in the sample. The total sample size was N=3600 households. The sample size takes into account a minimum 5 percent error margin with respect to the neighborhood SES level and a 20 percent rate of non response. The corresponding sample size b y neighborhood SES level was: n =1963 (55%) low scoring neighborhood households n =911 (25%) mid scoring neighborhood households and n =726 (20%) high scoring neighborhood households A total of 2626 households participated in the survey which forms 72.9 percent of the total sample The realized distribution by neighborhood SES level is: n =1523 (57%) households in low scoring neighborhoods, n =664 (25%) households in mid scoring neighborhoods and n =439 (17%) households in high scoring neighborhoods. T his distribution is representative of the distribution of the total population. The reasons for non response were : uninhabited addresses and addresses that could not be found 29.9 percent; refusals, 34.0 percent; not at homes ( after 3 calls )/unable to con tact, 18.7 percent; and other reasons 17.4 percent Additionally, s ome r espondents refuse d to answer certain individual questions, leading to question specific nonresponse. For most of the questions in this survey, this type of nonresponse was in the 1 t o 7 range, with an average of 2 nonresponses per question. In this document, in order to simplify the interpretation of the results, such answers are not included in the calculations. In other words, the reported percentages have been corrected for nonresp onse. Whe n ever the number of nonresponses exceeds seven, a note is added on the n value used. 2. 2 Data collection The data was collected from November 6, 2015 to January 18, 2016. The usual duration of such survey s is eight weeks. However, foreseeing higher nonresponse rates due to the Christmas holidays, it was decided to extend the period with an additional two weeks. In total, 52 surveyors participated in the survey. One person from each household was selected to be interviewed Th at person had to be 18 years or older and be the one whose birthday would come first after November 1, 2016. To make this selection in a controlled way, the surveyors filled out a household form with relevant data for each household member Then the surveyor would move on to interview the person selected, using a personal questionnaire that was first filled out on paper and later scanned. 2. 3 Data processing The scanning process was carried out with a high level of accuracy the rate of scanning misinterpretations being 2 percent. Cleanup of scanned data is carried out in a number of phases. The f irst phase is aimed at spotting scan misinterpretations and is done by the

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 16 verifiers. In the second phase, the project leader and the automation departme nt programmer print out frequency tables for all questions, in order to check for deviant values. The last phase, involving the cleanup (data editing) a n d estimation (grossing up) of the dataset was carried out by the methodologist. Some characteristics of the sample the selection criteria (18 years and older) and the gender and age proportions could lead to a distorted picture of the population To correct for this, a weighting factor was applied, calculated using data obtained from the 2011 Census and 2.4 Data analys is All analyses for this survey were performed using the software suits Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20, and R version 3.2.1. Descriptive analys es were conducted to calculate the percentages and c onfidence intervals (CI) were computed. The CIs were used to identify any significant differences in the answers received from different demographic groups. 2. 5 Important note Because th is survey is aim ed at identify ing it is important to take into account any events that took place while it was being conducted as these may have influence d mood. Some such events that took place during this survey included political upheavals (fall of the ministerial cabinet of Curaao on 11 9 2015), world events (terrorist act s in Paris, 13 11 2015) and festivities (Christmas and New Year).

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 17 3 R esult s The estimated distribution s of a number of socioeconomic characteristics are shown in Table 1. 3.1 Subjective wellbeing measured by observing the level of satisfaction with different aspec ts of li f e: life in general, relationships with others within the household, financial situation, current job and democracy in Curaao. 3.1.1 Satisfaction The highest levels of satisfaction are observed with respect to relationships with other members of the household ( Table 2). People are least satisfied with the way democracy is functioning in Curaao. Th e neighborhood SES levels differ significantly in their level of satisfaction with most aspects of life. Satisfaction with relationships with othe rs and

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 18 with current job were the only areas with no observed differences between the mid and high neighborhood SES populations The respondents indicate d their level of satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the different mentioned aspects of life usi ng a scaling system The percentage of positive answers appears in the table. The percentage s of satisf action with the different aspects of life are given for the total population first and then by neighborhood SES level. The only significant difference among the age categories is seen in the level of satisfaction with the current job (see Table 3). A positive relation can be seen between current job satisfaction and increase in age All age groups show significant differen ces with the 65+ group in this regard. One fact to take into account is that for this particular question, the n is less than half of the total n, as it was answered by working respondents only. No difference in the level of satisfaction between men and women was found For country of birth (born o n Curaao or not), a significant difference can be seen between the local born and foreign born populations level of satisfaction with all the aspects of life except the ir current job. In all significant cases, the foreign born population experiences a higher leve l of satisfaction compared to the local born population (see Table 4). Table 4 Somewhat o r very satisfied with different aspects of life ( by country of birth in %) born Foreign born Relationship with other household members 88.1 92.6 Current job 77.0 75.4 General satisfaction 75.6 80.1 Financial situation 44.5 53.0 Functioning of democracy in Curaao 11.2 24.2 n= 1948, n=1299, n=2597 3.1.2 Future expectations In describ ing not only level of satisfaction with their current situation but also their future expectations.

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 19 With respect to expectations for their own future 56.8 percent of the population expe ct their life to improve in three to four years, 32.0 percent expect it to remain the same and 11.3 percent expect it to worsen. Table 5). People in the 18 29 age category expect their li fe to improve (86.5%) while those in the 65+ group are more likely to expect their life to remain the same (55.6%). To the question time answered ly evenly distributed among the answer categories, and th e same distribution can be observed across all age categories. In other words, no significant differe nce is observed in the views of the different age categories on this matter. Table 5 Future expectations by age category (in %) Worse The same Better How do you think your life will be 18 29 2.5 11.0 86.5 30 49 9.4 22.4 68.2 50 64 15.4 39.7 44.9 65+ 16.3 55.6 28.1 How do you think the situation on time? 18 29 31.1 37.4 31.5 30 49 31.8 34.6 33.5 50 64 34.9 37.5 27.6 65+ 30.8 40.8 28.3 Future and the situation in Curaao do not differ across the different neighborhood SES levels N either was any difference found between the expectations of men and women on these matters. However, a significant difference was observed between the expectations of the local and foreign born populations. The foreign born population has a more positive view of the future of Curaao, compared to the local born population. 3.2 Trust Trust involves the degree to which one may ass ume good intentions in others (Rousseau, Sitkin, Burt, & Camerer, 1998), whether in interpersonal relations, in politics or from institutions. A certain degree of trust is necessary for cooperation as well as to be able to live together as part of a commun ity (Costa, Roe & Taillieu, 2001; Misztal, 1996; Putnam, 2000). 3.2.1 Interpersonal trust Of the population, 32.0 percent stated being somewhat or fully in agreement with the statement S ignificant differences are seen among all neighborhood SES levels : low (28.2%), mid (34.1%) and high (42.1%). See Figure 1.

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 20 Figure 1 by neighborhood SES level Further, 46.8 percent of the population stated being somewhat or fully in agreement with the statement Most people try to help each other out between the low SES neighborhoods and others Compared to the population of other neighborhood SES levels, those in low SES level neighborhoods are more likely to disagree with th is statement. See Figure 2. Figure 2 by neighborhood SES level No differences were observed among the different age categories or between men and women for the abovementioned trust related questions Table 6 shows that the foreign born population has significantly more t rust each other out, compared to the local born population. Table 6 Somewhat or fully in agreement with the statements ( by country of birth in %) born Foreign born Most people can be trusted 29.7 39.0 Most people try to help each other out 44.2 54.3 3.2.2 Trust in institutions Trust in institutions and organizations is low worldwide. Th ose enjoying the highest levels of trust are churches (42.9%), the police force (26.5%), the healthcare system (26.2%) and the education system (21.2%). See Table 7. Those enjoying the least trust are political parties (2. 3%), the government (3.8%) and Parliament (4.1%). 10.2 19.7 27.6 24.1 28 25.4 23.6 18.2 18.8 37.4 29.7 24.7 4.7 4.4 3.5 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% High SES level Mid SES level Low SES level Completely disagrees Disagrees to some extent Neutral Agrees to some extent Completely agrees 6.4 11.6 15.7 18.9 18.2 18.6 19.7 21.7 22.2 46.2 37.6 35 8.8 10.9 8.5 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% High SES level Mid SES level Low SES level Completely disagrees Disagrees to some extent Neutral Agrees to some extent Completely agrees

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 21 Table 7 Trust in instituti ons o r organi z ati ons (in %) very little/little neutral very much/much n.a. Church 21.5 33.7 42.9 1.8 The p olice 35.4 37.3 26.5 0.8 The healthcare system 40.5 32.3 26.2 0.9 The education system 41.7 34.4 21.2 2.7 NGOs 31.7 46.0 16.7 5.6 The judicial system 40.9 38.8 16.0 4.3 Business 36.1 45.7 15.6 2.6 Government services 56.1 31.3 11.6 1.0 The press 49.0 38.5 11.0 1.4 Labor unions 50.1 36.6 6.5 6.8 Parliament 69.7 24.4 4.1 1.9 The government 73.6 21.6 3.8 1.1 Political parties 78.6 17.6 2.3 1.6 When asked Can one trust that the government is doing what is best for Curaao 9.0 percent of the population stated being somewhat or fully in agreement that one can, while 33.6 percent was neutral and 57.3 percent answered negatively to this question. The distribution for the high neighborhood SES level significantly differs from t he other neighborhood SES levels. In F igure 3, one can see that this could mean that the population in high SES neighborhoods is more likely to have a neutral or positive view of the government, compared to the population in low and mid SES level neighborh oods. Figure 3 ? by neighborhood SES level Looking at the views of the different age categories on the matter, we see that the 65+ age category has a significantly higher level of confidence in the government of Curaao, compared to those in the 18 29 and 50 64 age categories. No difference was found between men and women. This question further showed the foreign born po pulation to have a significantly higher level of trust compared to the local born population. 3.2.3 Corruption Trust is a quality that is easily lost. (Webb & Worchel, 1986). As already mentioned, trust involves making yourself vulnerable to some extent. Whenever this vulnerability is misused through actions, our trust in others (be it individuals, institutions or society at large) is affected Corruption within institutions for instance, can lead to a co llapse in trust in institutions. 23.1 30.5 38.1 21.6 23.3 24.5 41.8 36.8 29.8 11.9 7.6 6.7 1.7 1.8 0.9 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% High SES level Mid SES level Low SES level Absolutely not No Neutral Yes Definitely

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 22 The area of life in which people experience corruption the least is their personal and family life (40.6%). On the other hand, the effects of corruption are experienced most in th e norms and values of society (75. 6%). See Table 8. family life, is seen between the population of high and low SES neighborhoods. Corruption is perceived in a higher degree by the population in low SES neighborhoods. Differences by age category can be seen with respect to the perceived influence of corruption on all aspects of life family life and on norms and values varies significantly between the 30 49 and 65+ age groups. Table 9 illustrates that in both cases, the 65+ group experiences the effects of corruption to a lesser degree. The population in the 30 49 and 50 64 age groups perceive significantly more corruption in politics, compared to those of 65 years and older. The 18 29 group also perceive s corruption in politics to a significantly lower degree, compared to the 30 49 age group. A difference can also be detected between the 65+ group at one hand and the 30 49 and 50 64 groups with respect to corruption perceived in the business world. Here too, the 65+ group has a more positive perception compared to other age groups. The same applies to the foreign born population compared to the local born population for all ar eas of life with the exception of politics. No difference was found between men and women. In answering the question Do you think the level of corruption will change in the following three to four years percent either be seen between the high SES neighborhoods and neighborhood s of other SES levels, with the population in high SES neighborhoods having a more positive view concerning future levels of corruption.

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 23 Loo king at the opinions held by different age categories we see a significant difference between the 18 29 and 30 49 groups on the one hand and the 65+ categor y on the other This could mean that the 65+ population has more positive future expectations with respect to corruption, compared to the 18 29 and 30 49 age categories. See Figure 4. Significant differences emerge when we look at the future expectations of corruption of the local born and foreign born populations. Compared to the local born population, t he foreign born population is more likely to expect corruption to decrease. No difference between men and women was found Figure 4 Do you think the level of corruption will change in the following three to four years by age category 3. 3 Participation Participation refers to 2006). Participation can take place in different areas. In this survey, l abor, political and social participation are explored 3.3.1 Labor participation Labor participation is the extent to which people are active in the labor market Having a job fosters unity by letting people feel that they are contribut ing to and are part of the system (ECLAC/OIJ, 2007, p. 169). For this survey, it was important to know if at the time of the interview the respondent s had a job or not 2 The y were therefore asked to indicate their current economic status. Table 10 shows the list of possible answers the y could choose from, and also show s how each of these options was later categorized as either active or inactive. 2 24.3 31.7 30.4 30.8 18.1 15.7 17.7 24.7 34.3 30.2 33.4 27.5 20.1 18.8 16.5 14.2 3.2 3.6 1.9 2.8 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 65+ 50-64 30-49 18-29 Increase drastically Increase somewhat Remain the same Decrease somewhat Decrease drastically

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 24 In total, 57.3 percent of the population reported being active in the labor market and 42.7 percent inactive. A comparison of the different neighborhood SES levels reveals significant differences among them, with people in high SES neighborhoods being the most active in the labor market (70.1%) S ee Figure 5. Figure 6 shows people in the 30 49 age category to be the most active in the labor market (87.5%) and those in the 65+ age category the least (9.8%). Significant differences can be seen among all age ca tegories. F urther, a significant difference was found between men and women with respect to labor participation, with women showing more labor market inactivity than men. The foreign born population of Curaao shows a higher level of labor activity than t he local born population. 3.3.2 Political participation Political participation involves the degree to which people take action in the political sphere. To the question How interested are you in politics 25.8 percent of the population stated being either interested or very interested. A significant difference is seen in the levels of interest of the different neighborhood SES levels (see Figure 7). However, no difference was found among age groups in the ir levels of interest in politics. Men show significantly more interest in politics than women, and the local b orn population also shows more interest in politics, compared to the foreign born population. 0 25 50 75 100 Low Mid High Active Inactive 0 25 50 75 100 18-29 30-49 50-64 65+ Active Inactive

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 25 Figure 7 How interested are you in politics by neighborhood SES level In total, 72.8 percent of the population reported having discussions with others on political topics, either from time to time or often. The population s of different neighborhood SES levels show significant differences among themselves with regard to this question ( Figure 8). The analysis shows that both the 18 29 and 65+ group s are less inclined to discuss political issues with others, compared to other age groups. Men discuss political topics more often than women (see Table 11). No difference was found between the local and foreign born populations in this regard. In total, 8.0 percent of the population reports feeling they can exert much or very much influence on politics. Furthermore, 13.8 percent of the population holds a neutral view on that statement, while 78.3 percent think they can exert little or very little influence on s on this subj ect are the same in the low and mid SES neighborhood s with a significantly different and more positive view prevailing in the high SES neighborhood s on the influence they are able to exert on politics. The population in the 18 29 and 30 49 age categories perceive having a higher degree of influence on politics, compared to the 65+ group. No significant difference was found between men and women or between the local and foreign born populations for this subject. 22.9 32.4 40.3 10.5 15 18.2 23.2 24 22.2 34.6 23.2 15.4 8.9 5.5 3.8 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% High SES level Mid SES level Low SES level Not interested at all Not interested Neutral Interested Very Interested 14.8 24.5 23 54.9 54.5 53.1 30.3 21 15 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% High SES level Mid SES level Low SES level Never From time to time Often

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 26 In the survey, 63.9 percent of the population stated that, if elections were held the next day, they would be vot ing By neighborhood SES the percentage of people with the intention to vote is: low 60.2%, mid 65.4% and high 74.0% (s ee Figure 9 ) Figure 10 shows how the intention to vote increases fr om one age group to the next As shown in Figure 11, men are more likely than women to have the intention to vote. Women, on the other hand, are more likely to report not having the intention to vote or not knowing if they will. F igure 12 shows that the local born population is more li kely to report having the intention to vote, while the foreign born population is more likely to report not having this intention. 0 25 50 75 100 Yes No Does not know Low Mid High 0 25 50 75 100 Yes No Does not know 18-29 30-49 50-64 65+ 0 25 50 75 100 Yes No Does not know Man Woman 0 25 50 75 100 Yes No Does not know Local-born Foreign-born

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 27 A difference is seen among the neighborhood SES levels especially in the number of people who have ever signed or are willing to sign petitions : l ow (54 .9 %), mid (68 .2 %) a n d h igh (73 .8 %) S ee Table 1 3 For each of the forms except occupying a building, the 30 49 age group ranks the highest for having done so or being willing to do it In Table 14, one can see that for all the surveyed forms of political participation, men rank slightly higher than women for hav ing done so or being willing to. T he local and foreign born population s alternate as the highest ranking group from one form of participation to the next. 3.3.3 Social participation Social participation is the extent to which people take action in either the formal or the informal sector.

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 28 or activities with the highest levels of participation are religious organizations (22.1%), sports and recreation (20.0%) and education or cultural activities (14.8%). For a number of organizations and activities, no differences were found among the population s of different neighborhood SES levels, age categories, gender or birthplaces and o nly significant differences are presented here The distribution can be seen in t able 16. One such significant difference was found among all neighborhood SES levels with high SES neighborhoods are member s of a pr ofessional association, compared to those in other SES level neighborhoods. The next highest percentage corresponds to the mid SES neighborhood p opulation. Significant differences were found between the high SES neighborhoods and the rest with respect to N eighborhood Actions, Environment or Animal Welfare, Sports and Recreation as well as Other In all these cases, the high SES neighborhood level neighborhoods. Also, the high SES neighborh ood population seems more involved in Education and Cultural Activities than the low SES neighborhood population. For a few organizations or activities, the level of social participation varies per age category. People in the 30 49 age group are significa ntly more involved with environmental or animal welfare activities, compared to people in the 50 64 age group. found between the 65+ and other age groups. Participation f or both Social Organizations higher level of participation in the 18 29 age group, compared to the 50 64 and 65+ age groups. A difference was also observed in the level of participation of the 30 49 and 65+ age groups. With respect to labor union membership, people in both the 18 29 and 65+ age groups were found less likely to be labor union members, compared to those of other age groups. A difference was also found among all age categories, except the 18 29 and 30 49 groups, with respect to participation in Sports and Recreation. For this activity, participation decreases as the a ge category increases.

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 29 Table 16 Yes, I am a member of or involved with the following organi z ati ons o r activiti es (by neighborhood SES level and age category in %) Low Mid High 18 29 30 49 50 64 65+ Religious organizations 23.5 21.4 18.7 21.8 20.9 23.8 22.1 Sports and recreation 15.7 20.7 33.4 32.2 24.1 15.7 8.3 Education or cultural activities 12.3 15.8 21.3 20.8 16.8 12.3 9.5 Youth work 8.9 10.5 13.3 14.6 11.6 9.6 4.4 Neighborhood actions 5.6 7.1 16.0 6.8 8.1 7.9 7.9 Social organizations 6.3 9.3 9.1 4.6 7.2 6.6 12.2 6.7 8.7 7.4 4.5 5.3 6.8 13.9 Other 5.7 6.2 12.0 9.5 6.0 7.1 5.9 Professional association 3.7 7.7 15.8 4.2 8.5 7.5 5.2 Environment or animal rights 4.3 6.0 14.7 4.9 9.4 4.3 6.5 Healthcare volunteer 3.9 6.4 6.5 3.5 5.6 4.6 5.9 Labor union 3.9 5.7 5.0 1.8 7.3 5.0 2.0 Human rights 3.2 2.5 5.6 4.6 3.5 2.5 3.7 Peace movement 1.9 2.4 2.6 2.1 2.4 1.8 2.3 Political party 0.9 1.7 2.6 1.1 1.5 1.6 1.3 Looking at the difference in social participation levels between men and women, it was observed that women have a significantly higher level of participation than men in Religious Organizations and Women s groups. The opposite was found for participation i n Neighborhood Actions and Sports and Recreation. With respect to the difference in participation between the local born and foreign born populations, the foreign born population was found to have a higher level of participation in Human Rights related act ivities, while the local born population has a higher level of participation when it comes to Youth Work. In interpreting these results, one must keep in mind that the level of participation shown in Table 15 is quite low in general. In other words, the above results show that, although the groups do differ on certain characteristics, social participation is low across the board. 3.4 Inclusion Inclusion involves the extent to which people perceive that soci ety allows them to belong to it while at the same time permitting them to be themselves ( Jansen, Otten, van der Zee & Jans, 2013) 3.4.1 Belonging One way of measuring inclusion in Curaao is by observing how people react to statements regarding criteria to determin e whether someone may or may not be A Yu di Krsou population indicated being either partially or completely in agreement. With the statement A Yu di Krsou wa s somewhat or fully in agreement, while 84.0 percent of the population was somewhat or fully in agreement with the statement Chil dren of migrants, if born on the island, are Yu di Krsou too ; 54.9 percent of the population was somewhat or fully in agreement with

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 30 A migrant who has been living on Curaao for 15 years or more is also Yu di Krsou and 62.8 percent wa s somewhat or fully in agreement with the statement Someone who works for the betterment of the Curaao community is also Yu di Krsou shows the distribution of answers to the different questions, and a difference in answer patterns can be observed amo ng a number of the statements. Table 17 shows the distribution of answers by neighborhood SES level. The population s of different neighborhood SES levels do not differ with respect to their views on the Yu di Krsou Yu di Krsou. Views do differ significan tly by neighborhood SES level, however, for the statements A Yu di Krsou A Yu di Krsou must SES neighborhoods is most in agreement with t hese statements, with mid SES neighborhoods coming in second and the high SES neighborhood population trailing behind even more. For the last statement Someone who works for the betterment of the Curaao community is also Yu di Krsou a significant dif ference can be observed between the low and other neighborhood SES levels with the low SES neighborhood population being less in agreement with this statement, compared to the population of other neighborhood SES levels. 0 25 50 75 Yu di korsouBorn there Yu di korsou-Includes children of immigrants, born on Curacao Yu di korsouSpeaks Papiamentu Yu di korsouIncludes foreigners who work for the betterment of the community Yu di korsouIncludes those living on Curacao >15yrs Completely disagree Disagree to some extent Neutral Agree to some estent Completely agree

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 31 After further breaking down the responses by age category, gender and country of birth the following significant differences were found: The 65+ group is more in agreement with the statement A Yu di Krsou to those of the 30 49 and 50 64 age groups. Those in the 18 29 age group are less likely to Yu di Krsou must be compared to those in the 50 64 and 65+ age groups. Those in the 30 49 age group are also less in agreement with th at statement, compared to the 65+ group. However, no difference was found between men and women. The lo cal born population agrees to a higher degree with the statement A Yu di Krsou must be someone who was to the foreign born population, while the foreign born population is more likely to agree with the statements : n of migrants, if born on the island, are Yu di Krsou years or more is also Yu di Krsou Curaao community is also Yu di Krsou Following ar e four statements dealing with different Curaao related issues. When reported being proud of Curaao, with the low SES neighborhood population experiencing higher levels of pride compared to the other neighborhood SES levels. The 65+ group reports being more proud of Curaao than those in the 18 29 and 30 49 age groups (see Figure 14). The 50 64 year old population also reports higher levels of pride compared to the 30 49 and 18 29 age groups. No difference was found between men and women. Furthermore, the local born population reports higher levels of pride of Curaao compared to th e foreign born population.

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 32 The second statement dealt with cultural preservation, and 93.8 percent of the population reported considering cultural preservation as important or very important. The low SES neighborhood population does so to a higher degree than the high SES neighborhood population. Additionally, cultural preservation is considered more important by the local born population than by the foreign born population. No difference in views was observed among age categories or between men and women with regard to this issue Also, 50.9 percent of the population stated that the presence of migrants enriches cultural life on Curaao. A signif icant difference is observed between the high SES and other neighborhood s with the high SES neighborhood s having a more positive view on the enriching effect that migrants may have on Curaaoan culture. Th e foreign born population is more in agree ment wit h this statement, compared to the local born population. No difference was found among the age categories or between men and women. The last of these statements dealt with whether the presence of migrants is good for the economy, and 55.1 percent of the po pulation reported being in agreement. The high SES neighborhood population has a more positive view of this statement compared to the population of other neighborhood SES levels (see Figure 15). Both the 18 29 and 30 49 age groups have a more positive view on the influence of migrants on the economy, compared to the 65+ group. In addition, the foreign born population is more likely to agree with this statement than the local born population. No difference was found between men and women. 7.7 8.3 11 13.9 24 28.7 37.3 36.8 65.5 60.6 48.8 45.1 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 65+ 50-64 30-49 18-29 Completely disagree Disagree to some extent Neutral Agree to some extent Completely agree 2.6 6.4 9.5 5.2 8.4 8.8 26.9 27.6 30.8 40.7 36.2 30.7 24.6 21.3 20.3 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% High SES level Mid SES level Low SES level Completely disagree Disagree to some extent Neutral Agree to some extent Completely agree

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 33 3.4.2 Acceptance of others Another aspect of inclusion is the willingness to accept those who are different. When asked if they would object to having as neighbors people with certain characteristics ( Table 18) the respondents reported objecting the most to having drug addicts (52.7%) and mental patients (40.3%) as neighbors, and the least to people of a different ethnic background or from a d ifferent country (15.8%) and those of a different religious background (13.5%). Unlike the low and mid SES neighborhoods to which this general distribution applies, the high SES neighborhood population objects more to having neighbors with a criminal past (43.6%) than to having mental patients as such (39.3%). See Table 19. The survey results show that 73.9% of the population have friends with a different country of birth. A difference in this regard can be observed among the low (69.3%), mid (75.9%) and high SES (86.6%) neighborhood s. However, the only significant difference in distribution is that between the low and high SES nei ghborhood populations. Based on the distribution shown in Figure 16, it can be concluded that those in the high SES neighborhood population are more likely to have friends with a different country of birth, compared to the low SES neighborhood population The same applies to the 18 29 age group ; they too are more likely to be close friends with people that have a different country of birth, compared to the 65+ group. The foreign born population is more likely

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 34 than the local born population to be close frien ds with people that have a different country of birth. No difference was found between men and women. 3.4.3 Connectedness The level of connectedness was measured by asking the respondents how connected they felt to for instance their neighborhood or to Curaao as a whole, and 76.6 percent of the population stated feeling either completely or to some extent connected to Curaao. As shown i n Table 20, people feel the least connected to North America (24.2%). The only difference in the level of connection among the different neighborhood SES levels was observed between Latin and North America. In both cases, the level of connection perceived by the low SES neighborhood population differs significantly from that of other neighborhood SES levels. Th ose of th e 65+ group feel more involved with their neighborhood compared to those of other age groups. The 18 29 age group reports being less involved with Curaao compared to the 50 64 year olds and the 65+ group. The same difference is found between the 30 49 and 65+ age groups. The 65+ group feel s a higher level of involvement with the islands of the former Netherlands Antilles and Aruba compared to other age groups. Additi onally, the 50 64 year olds see themselves as being more involved with the islands of the former Netherlands Antilles and Aruba compared to the 30 49 age group, and the 65+ group feels a higher level of involvement with the Netherlands compared to the 18 29 and 30 49 year olds. The same applies to the 50 64 year olds, compared to the 30 49 age group. The only difference found between men and women is with respect to their involvement with Latin and North America. In both cases, women feel less involved compared to men. The foreign born population shows higher levels of involvement than the local born 86.6 75.9 69.3 12.8 23.6 30.2 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% High SES level Mid SES level Low SES level Yes No

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 35 population with respect to the following regions: Curaao, the Caribbean Region, Latin America and North Ameri c a. 3.4.4 Discrimination Discrimination refers people and can be based on different characteristics. To describe this phenomenon respondents were asked to indicate what forms of discrimination they have ever experienced and whether they h ad experienced any on Curaao during the past year. As shown in Table 21, discrimination is experienced most often based on skin color (11.8%) and country of birth (11%). The main significant difference observed in level s of skin color discrimination exper ienced was between the high SES neighborhood population and that of other neighborhood SES levels. Another significant difference found between the low SES neighborhood population and other neighborhood SES levels was about having experienced discrimination based on language. The 65+ population experiences significantly less discrimination based on skin color, SES, country of birth or language compared to other age groups. Furthermore 50 64 year olds experience more discrimination based on their country of birth and language compared to 30 49 year olds. Religious discrimination is experienced more by 18 29 year olds than by the 65+ population. Women experience higher levels of gender discrimination than men, and the f o reign born population experiences more discrimination based on country of birth and language, compared to the local born population. When asked How often did you experience discrimination in Curaao during the past year 76.2 percent of the population stated never having experienced discrimination, 20.3 discrimination is experienced by the high SES neighborhood population compared to the low SES neighborhood population Of all the age groups, the one that experienced discrimination the least in the past year was the 65+ group. It was also found that 50 64 year olds experienced less discrimination compared to 30 49 year olds. No differ ence was found between men and women. When

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 36 compar in g the local and foreign born populations however, it can be seen that the foreign born population did experience discrimination more often than the population born on Curaao. 3.5 Social mobility Social m obility refers to the upward and downward movement of individuals or groups of people, from one generation to the next, between different socioeconomic strata in society (Causa & Johansson, 2010). 3.5.1 Expectations about future social status When asked Do you think your social status in Curaao will improve in the next three to four years a large majority of the population (91.8%) expects their situation to either remain the same or improve. No difference was found among the neighborhood SES levels and countries of birth, nor between men and women. However, s ignificant differences were found among all age groups with respect to their expectations of improve ment in their social status. As shown in Figure 17, these expectations diminish with age. Eighty ( 80.0 ) percent of the population expressed believing that their children will be better off than they are The high SES neighborhood population differs significant ly from other neighborhood SES levels in this regard F igure 18 shows that the percentage who believe that their children will be better off than they are is higher for the low a n d mid SES neighborhood population s, compared to the high SES neighborhood population 11.6 11 6.6 3.2 61.3 47.4 33.9 24.3 26.4 41.6 59.1 72.2 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 65+ 50-64 30-49 18-29 Deteriorate Remain the same Improve

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 37 The 18 29 and 30 49 age groups have higher expectations about the future of their children compared to the 50 64 and 65+ populations. Also, the foreign born population has higher expectations compared to the local born population. No difference was found between men and women. A certain level of willpower is conditions, and 81.1 percent of the population reported having th at necessary willpower. The low SES neighborhood population has lower levels of willpower to bring about changes compared to the pop ulation of other neighborhood SES levels. See Figure 19. If the levels of willpower are observed by age group, significant differences emerge among all age groups, except between the 18 29 and 30 49 groups. Also, t he levels of willpower are the highest among the 18 29 age group and drop for each next age group, as seen in Figure 20. Higher levels of willpower are also observed among the foreign born population compared to the local born population. No difference in willpower was observed between men and women. 18 13.8 16.5 46.5 35.8 41.3 30.1 44.5 39.5 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% High SES level Mid SES level Low SES level Absolutely not No Neutral Yes Absolutely 10.3 12.3 16.2 43.9 38.6 37 43.3 45.2 41 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% High SES level Mid SES level Low SES level Absolutely not No Neutral Yes Absolutely

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 38 When a sked whose responsibility it is to see that people get ahead in society, 57.2 percent of the population expressed get ahead in society. Furthermore, 30.8 percent of the population hold s the opinion that the individ ual and the government share this responsibility. In broad lines, this distribution is observed across all neighborhood SES levels, age groups, genders and countries of birth. The only difference observed was between the 50 64 and 18 29 age groups with t h e younger age category tend ing more towards attributing this responsibility to the government. In Table important factor. The extent to which factor to get ahead in life differs by neighborhood SES level. 3.5.2 Equal opportunity Equal opportunit y is a prerequisite for all members of society to achieve social mobility. analyzed using a number of statements Th e result s ( Table 23) show th at the great majority of the population believes that people w ith physical disabilities have the same rights as everyone else (92.7%) and that women a n d men are entitled to equal pay (84.5%). The views of the population of different neighborhood SES levels differ by subject For example 79.9 percent of the populatio n in low SES neighborhood s agree with the statement In Curaao, the difference between while the high SES neighborhood population only agrees to a significant ly lesser degree (71.7%). The opposite is the case for 0 25 50 75 18-29 30-49 50-64 65+ Absolutely not No Neutral Yes Absolutely

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 39 the statement Gay men and lesbian women should be treated the same way as heterosexuals Her e, a significant difference is observed, with the low and mid SES neighborhood population s agreeing with the statement to a significantly lesser degree compared to the high SES neighborhood population A significant difference was also found between the low SES neighborhood population and the other neighborhood SES levels regarding the statement Women and men should receive equal pay with the low SES neighborhood population being less in agreement The last statement for which a significant difference was found among the neighborhood SES levels is The low SES neighborhood population was more in agreement with th at statement compared to the population of other nei ghborhood SES levels. It is also interesting to note that no difference was found among the neighborhood SES levels for the statement In Curaao, Looking at how the different age categories view these statements we find that compared to the other age categories, the 65+ group is more in agreement with the statement

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 40 Curaao is a country that offers many opportunities, and anyone who works hard will ( see Table 24 ) The 50 64 age group too is more positive wit h respect to this statement, compared to the 18 29 year olds The 18 29 year olds are also significantly less in agreement with the statement compared to th e 50 64 and 65+ age group s Finally, a significant difference was also seen with regard to the statement In Curaao, people with little or no income receive enough between the 65+ group on the one hand a n d the 30 49 and 50 64 year olds on the other The statements that the foreign born population agreed with more than the local born population were : who Men and women should receive equal pay. On the other hand, compared to the local born population, the foreign born population was less i n agreement with the statement M en a nd women hold the same view on these statements 3.6 Social involvement Social involvement is expressed through social cohesion among people living in the same area. (Schnabel, Bijl & de Hart, 2008). In this regard, the survey focused on neighborhood cohesion a n d solidarit y 3.6.1 Neighborhood cohesion The population holds rather positi ve views on the neighborhood s in which they live g rading life in their neighborhood with an average 7.48 (SD=3.29). The level of neighborhood cohesion is also perceived rather positively Sharing in the responsibility for things to go well in the neighborhood (82.6%) and having good contacts with neighbors (77.5%) are the aspects of neighborhood cohesion being perceived most positively ( see Table 25 ) On these two aspects, no difference was found by neighborhood SES level. There were significant differences among all neighborhood SES levels regarding the st atement The low SES neighborhood population is less in agreement with the statements : h elp each other out compared to the population of other neighborhood SES levels. The low SES neighborhood population is more in agreement with the statement compared to the population of other nei ghborhood SES levels. Th e statement The people in this neighborhood only think a significant ly higher degree by the low SES neighborhood population compared to the population of mid SES level neighborhoods

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 41 Compared to the population of all other age categories, the 18 29 age group is less in agreement with the statements : a n d have good contacts with my direct neighbors Another significant difference found for these statements was between the 30 49 and 65+ age group s For th e statement I feel like I share responsibility for things to go well in this neighborhood views diffe red among all age groups except between the 50 64 year olds a n d the 65+ group. With this statement, the general trend is for the sense of responsibility to increase with age And for the statement the only significant difference was found between the 18 29 and 65+ age group s, with the latter being more in agreement W omen perception of people in their neighborhood as being trustworthy is lower than men And compared to the local born population, the foreign born population is more in agreement with the statements : in this neighborhood hardl a n d nice to each other On the other hand, compared to the local born population, th e foreign born population is less in agreement with the statement I feel like I share responsibility for things t o go well in this neighborhood Asked how safe do you feel when you are home alone 76.2 percent of the population expressed feeling rather or very safe No significant difference was observed among the neighborhood SES levels or countries of birth. The 65+ population feels significant ly less safe compared to the population of other age categories. Similarly, compared to men women feel less safe when home alone 3.6.2 Social relations When researching social involvement it is important to observe the s tate of social interaction among individuals In order to describe this, the survey included questions on the time spent by the respondent having different types of interaction and to whom he or she confides private or intimate matters

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 42 Those spend ing time with famil y members on a daily basis made up 58.6 percent of the population ( see Table 26 ) Time spent with friends and that spent at church both score highest on a weekly basis About half of the population reported never spend ing any time with coworkers somewhere other than at work n o r with people at centers, clubs or associations These resul ts agree with those in Table 27 which show the population to be most likely to share their most private or intimate matters within the family environment (66.2%) a n d least likely with coworkers (0.6%). 3.6.3 Solidarit y Identifying the population gro u p s that people are most concerned about may help to pinpoint the aspects of society that are perceived as deficien t The population gro u p s people are most concerned about are children in low income families on Curaao (77.8 %), ill or handicapped people on Curaao (69.8%) and the elderly on Curaao (70.0%) F or more informati on on the distributions, see Figure 21.

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 43 The high neighborhood SES level population is less concerned about the living conditions of the elderly and the handicapped, compared to the population of other neighborhood SES levels. It was also found that the 65+ group is less concerned with the living conditions of their acquaintances, compared to the population of other age categories. The 65+ group is less concerned than the 50 64 age group about the living conditions of the unemployed, and less concerned abou t the livin g conditions of immigrants, compared to th e 30 49 a n d 50 64 age groups Th e 50 64 group is significant ly more concerned about the living conditions of their neighbors and people in other parts of the world, compared to 18 29 year olds ( see Table 28 ) Women are more concerned than men about the conditions of poor children on Curaao and th e foreign born population is more concerned about the conditions of immigrant s people in the Caribbean Region and people in other parts of the world, compared to t he local born population Norms and values have to do with the rules prescribing which actions are allowed or not, and which things in the world are worth pursuing (Bossuyt et al., 2006). 0 25 50 75 100 Little Neutral A lot

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 44 At this question, where the respondents had to choose one of three statements about good and evil 41.0 percent of the population answered that there are clear guidelines on good and evil and that these guidelines apply to everyone, regardless of the circumstances ( see Table 29 ) No significant difference was found by nei ghborhood SES level or age category, nor between men and women, with regard to the statement s chosen A difference was found, however, between th e foreign born and local born population s Compared to the foreign born population, t he local born population leans more towards th e statement There are clear guidelines on good and evil. These guidelines apply to everyone, regardless of the circumstances When asked Which qualities do you consider important for children to learn at home the respondents could indicate three qualities as the most important, from a list of seventeen The three qualities most often chosen were : 3.8 Other subjects In addition to the aspect s considered as directly affecting social cohesion there are several other aspects that can also indirectly influence it Some of these were included in the questionnaire and are covered below 3.8.1 The e nvironment At the statements on different aspects of how the environment is dealt with, the majority of the population (91.7%) expressed that the beaches on Curaao should be accessible free of charge to locals ( see Table 31 ) The high SES neighborhood population is less in agreement wi th this statement compared to the population of other neighborhood SES levels.

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 45 Also, 76.5 percent of the population expresses being worried about the environment on Curaao with the high SES neighborhood population being more concerned, compared to the population of other neighborhood SES levels. A significant difference can be observed between the low and high SES neighborhood populations regarding the statement The 65+ population is more in agreement with the statement The government is doing compared to the population of other age categories. The 65+ group also believe s more strongly than the 18 29 and 30 49 age groups that eco nomic projects are more important than taking care of the environment Contrary to the 50 64 and 65+ age group s, the 30 49 year olds are less in agreement with the statement The l ocal born population is more in agreem e nt with the statement on free access to the beaches of Curaao compared to th e foreign born population. No differences were found between men and women. 3.8.2 Health According to the Sociocultural Panning Bureau ( Sociaal Cultureel Planbureau or SCP) health is considered both a risk factor for and an indicator of exclusion (Jehoel Gijsbers, 2004). In the survey, 68.2 percent of the population described their health as either good or very good 29.4 percent 2.4 percent as either bad or very bad A difference can be observed between the neighborhood SES levels ( see Figure 22 ) A higher percentage of the high SES neighborhood population perceive their health as either good or very good, compared to the population of other neighborhood SES levels Th is is a significant difference

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 46 In Figure 23 one can see that perceived health varies by age category. The differences are significant everywhere except between the 18 29 and 30 49 age groups M en a n d th e foreign born population also have a better perception of their own health, compared to women a n d the local born population. Further, 81.7 percent of the population reported not having any long term health issues or physical disabilities In contrast, 18.2 percent of the population does report having long term health issues or some physical disability, with 12.9 percent of that group reporting severe limit ations in their day to day activities, 49.9 percent reporting limit ations but not severe ones and 35.6 percent reporting no limi tations at all due to health issues in their day to day activities The mid SES neighborhood population feels more limited in this respect, compared to the population of other neighborhood SES levels. F igure 24 makes it clear that the 18 29 and 30 49 age groups feel significant ly less limited, compared to the 50 64 year olds and the 65 + population No other differences were found in this respect be t ween men and women o r by country of birt h 15.9 29.7 33.4 52.8 47.7 44.1 30.1 21.1 19.4 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% High SES level Mid SES level Low SES level Very bad Bad Regular Good Very good 43.8 33.5 23.3 18.2 37.2 46.6 50.3 49.8 13.3 17.1 25.8 30.9 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 65+ 50-64 30-49 18-29 Very bad Bad Regular Good Very good

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 47 3.8.3 Mater ia l deprivati on In addition to health, materi a l depr i vati on is also considered by the SCP to be a risk factor for and indicator of exclusion (Jehoel Gijsbers, 2004). When asked about their household income 24.4 percent of the population reported th at it is either insufficient or very insufficient for them to make ends meet without any problems 22.9 percent reported it to be neither sufficient nor insufficient, and 52.6 percent of the population report ed that their income is either sufficient or more than sufficient to make ends meet without any problems F igure 25 shows the distribution to vary significantly by neighbo rhood SES level. The 30 49 age group perceives their household income more positive ly than 50 64 year olds Men too are more likely than women to consider the household income to be sufficient and the foreign born population, likewise, are more likely to perceive their household income as being sufficient, compared to the local born population. When asked to speci fy the areas for which the household income suffices without any problems, 75.3 of the population reported not having any problems to purchase healthy food New furniture purchases is the area that the population is least able to afford (40.8%). A significant difference can be observed among the 14.5 12.4 13.4 9 52.8 52.4 41.2 49.8 31.4 34.7 40.7 41.2 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 65+ 50-64 30-49 18-29 Severely limited Limited, but not severely Not limited at all 1.2 4.5 5.9 6.7 14.7 25.9 19 22.5 24.2 58.1 51.5 42.1 15.1 6.8 1.9 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% High SES level Mid SES level Low SES level Very insufficient Insufficient Neither sufficient nor insufficient Sufficient More than sufficient

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 48 The 65+ group is more likely to perceive their household income to be insufficient to afford most of the surveyed expense categories By expense category, the difference is as follows : V acations abroad : P eople aged 65 and older are less likely to perceive their income to be sufficient, compared to the 30 49 age group New furniture: Compared to the 30 49 and 50 64 age groups, p eople aged 65 and older are more likely to report n ot being able to afford this based on their household income. New clothing: This group is more likely to perceive their in c ome as insufficient, compared to th e 18 29 and 30 49 age groups The 50 64 year olds too, consider their household income to be insufficient for this type of purchases, to a greater extent than 30 49 year olds Payment of interest and principal of l oans and debt s : P eople aged 65 and older perceive their in c ome as insufficient to a greater extent than the 30 49 age group Eating o ut: This gro u p considers their income to be insufficient to eat out, compared to the 18 29 and 30 49 age groups Those in th e 50 64 age group too, perceive their household income to be less sufficient to afford this expense category, compared to the 18 29 and 30 49 age groups For all the surveyed expense categories, women have a significantly less positive perce ption of the household income than men. The foreign born population perceives their household income more positive ly compared to the local born population for the following expense categories : vacations abroad new clothing eating out and healthy eating No differences were found for the other expense categories Additionally, 73.0 percent of the population reported never having defaulted on any payments 20.5 percent have defaulted a few times and 6.5 percent of the population ha ve done so several times F igure 26 shows the difference s among the neighborhood SES levels. The high SES neighborhood population reports having defaulted significant ly less often compared to the population of other neighborhood SES levels.

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 49 People aged 65 and older too report si gnificant ly fewer instances of default compared to the population of other age categories. Women report defaulting more frequently than men. No difference was found between the local and foreign born population s 3.8.4 Information gathering The extent to which people are informed is seen as a determining factor in their ability to active ly participat e (Pretty, 1995). According to of participation (1995) no participation is possible without informati on transfer between parties In Ta ble 33 television (74.9%) ranks as the media used most by the population as a source of information, and newspapers (42.7%) as the one being used least Newspapers are used more often by the high SES neighborhood population compared to the low SES neighborhood population The opposite applies to televisi on use Television is used more often by the low SES neighborhood population compared to those in high SES neighborhoods An even larger difference is seen among all neighborhood SES levels (see Figure 27) in the use of the internet/social media. 83 74.4 69.3 14.6 20 22.6 2.5 5.5 8.2 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% High SES level Mid SES level Low SES level Never A few times Several times 6.3 21.3 30.5 0.8 3 4 2.1 2.9 3.3 4.7 5.3 6.8 86.1 67.3 55.4 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% High SES level Mid SES level Low SES level Never Less than once a week At least once a week At least 3x a week Daily

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 50 M edia us age also varies by age category. Newspaper use increases with age The only age categories that do not differ from each other with respect to newspaper reading are the 50 64 and 65 + age groups The 65+ group watches television more often than all other age categories. Th e 50 49 age group likewise, watches television more often than 18 29 year olds Moreover, the 18 29 year olds listen to the radio less frequently, compared to other age categories. I nternet use varies significant ly across all age categories and drops with age as seen in Figure 28. Men read the newspaper more often than women and all four surveyed media type s are used more often by the local born population compared to the foreign born population. When asked which subjects are looked up in th e media 79.5 percent of the population reported looking up health information and 37.9 percent reported looking up information on politics Differences are observed a cross the different neighborhood SES levels in th e extent to which certain types of information are looked up in the media ( see Table 34 ) The high SES neighborhood population is more likely to look up entertainment and health information, compared to the population of other neighborhood SES levels. T he low SES neighborhood population is also less likely to look up information on politi cs, compared to the population of other neighborhood SES levels Informati on on spirituality is looked up less often by the high SES neighborhood population than by the mid SES nei ghborhood population Those in low SES level neighborhoods use the media less often for shopping, compared to the high SES neighborhood population The different neighborhood SES 57.1 30.8 8.9 3.9 3.4 4.3 2.5 2.5 3.7 4.2 2.6 1.1 6 6.7 7.1 3.2 29.6 54 78.8 89.3 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 65+ 50-64 30-49 18-29 Never Less than once a week At least once a week At least 3x a week Daily

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 51 levels show significant differences when it comes to informati on on business the economy a n d science These subjects are looked up more often by each higher neighborhood SES level. I nformation on entertainment and shopping is looked up less frequent ly with age t he only exception being that for shopping, no difference was found b etween 18 29 and 30 49 year olds The 65+ group is less likely than the other age categories to look up information on business and the economy through these media. Political topics are looked up less frequently by 18 29 year olds than by 30 49 year olds a nd the 65+ age group Informati on on health is looked up more frequently by 30 49 and 50 64 year olds than by the 18 29 age group People age d 65 and older are less likely to look up information on scientific topics, compared to 30 49 and 50 64 year olds A similar difference is found between 18 29 a n d 30 49 year olds Lastly, informati on on spirituality is looked up more frequently by 30 49 year olds compared to the 18 29 age group Men look up information more often than women in the categories : Sports Business/Economy Politics a n d Science The opposite trend was found with respect to the categories Health a n d Spirituality The foreign born population looks up information on Culture Entertainment a n d Business/Economy more often than the local born population.

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 52 4. C onclusion Social cohesion is a subject that arouses the interest of many Nevertheless while preparing this survey it became clear that regardless of this high level of interest no standard way of measuring social cohesion exists One reason for this may lie in the social aspect of th is subject is necessary to assess a number of matters that are relevant to that particular country And just as countries differ culturally from on e another, certain matters may also be more significant for one country than for others That is why, in addition to carrying out a literature re view when designing the survey we also spoke to actors who are active in the local cultural sector, in order t o formulate a social cohesion survey that would be as cu l tur ally specific as possible Th e is to carry out a n initial measurement of social cohesion i n Curaao, trying to describe the stat e of different elements of social cohesion. B eing the first time that such a survey is carried out in its present form in Curaao and in the region, so far no formula exists that can provide an unequivocal answer on the question of what the state of social cohesion is in Curaao. This initial measure ment may, however, serve as a basis for constructing a Social Cohesion Index specific to Curaao (Markus, 2014). This initial measurement may also be used as a benchmark with which to compare the results of the next measurement to be held in five years Although the present survey cannot unequivocal ly establish the state of social cohesion in Curaao, it does show the views held by the population i n the different social cohesion dom a in s The results show, f or instance, the consensus that seems to exist be tween men and women on a number of different issues in different dom a in s Below, we will mention the most striking results for each domain With respect to subjective wellbeing one particularly interesting finding was tha t people across the different age categories as well as men and women are in consensus with respect to their perceived level of satisfaction with most areas of living while the level of satisfaction with most areas of living did differ by neighborhood SES level a n d between the lo ca l a n d foreign born population s The level of trust in other people and institutions is low One remarkable finding is that, compared to the local born population, th e foreign born population has more trust in others and is more likely to feel that the government is doing what is best for Curaao. The foreign born population also perceives less corruption in different areas of life, compared to the local born population. Different forms of participation were investigated in the survey and it was remark able to see that, even though both interest in politics (25.8%) and the feeling of being able to influence politics (8.0%) are low the intention to vote is nevertheless significantly higher (63.9%).

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 53 One component of inclusion is th e level in which people are accepting of others within society As shown by t he results of this survey people do not only consider those born on Curaao to be Yu di Krsou but also children of immigrant s born here and others who speak Papiamentu fluently To achieve social mobility it is important for everyone to have equal opportunities A consensus was found among the different population groups on most statements dealing with equal opportunity On the matter of social involvement the different population groups w ere al so in consensus with respect to how much they worry about the living conditions of different groups on Curaao painting a picture of unanimity on the subjects that concern the population in that country As a final point in the norms and values domain, the survey aimed to identify which virtues are considered important The results show that at this point in time, the qualities deemed most important to teach to children are respect, good manners and love This is one example of a benchmark that may be u sed when conducting future surveys, to see whether the norms and values considered important do actually change over time

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Social relations in the population of Curaao Results Social Cohesion Survey 2015 54 Bibliography concept, Lien social et Politiques RIAC, 41, 47 59. Bossuyt, M., Ambicht, L., Alsulaiman, A., Charkaoui, N.M. Foblets, M.C., Torfs, R. & Vermeersch, E. (2006). Eindverslag commissie ter invulling van de cursus maatschappelijke orintatie, Vlaamse regering. Causa, O. & Johansson, (2010). Intergenerationa l social mobility in OECD countries. OECD Journal: Economic Studies, 2010. Chan, J., To, H. & Chan, E. (2006). Reconsidering social cohesion: developing a definition an d analytical framework for empirical research, Social Indicators Research 75, 273 302. Costa, A.C., Roe, R.A., & Taillieu, T. (2001). Trust within teams: The relation with performance effectiveness. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 10 (3), 225 244. doi: 10.1080/13594320143000654. Diener, E. (1984). Subjective well bein g, Psychological Bulletin 95 (3), 542 575. doi : 10.1037/0033 2909.95.3.542 ECLAC (Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean)/ EUROsocial, (2007). A System of Indicators for Monitoring Social Cohesion in Latin America. Santiago, Chile. Jansen, W., Otten, S., van der Zee, K. & Jans, I. (2013). Inclusie: Conceptualisering en Meting ResearchGate. Markus, A. (2014). Mapping social cohesion: The Scanlon foundation survey 2014 Mo nash University. Misztal, B.A. (1996). Trust in modern societies: The search for the bases of social order. Cambridge: Polity. NDP (National Development Plan) (2015). Curaao National Development Plan: Building Strengths. Putnam, R.D. (2007). E pluribus unum. Diversity and community in the twenty first century. The 2007 Johan Skytte Prize Lecture. In: Scandinavian Political Studies, jg. 30, nr. 2, p. 137 174. Reynders, T., Nicaise, I. & van Damme J. (2005). De constructie van een SES variabele voor het Si BO onderzoek: longitudinaal onderzoek in het basisonderwijs. LOA rapport nr. 31. Romer, P., Offerman, S., Albertina, R., Vos, T., Valpoort, K. & Domacass, P. (2015). Plan di Akshon Integral Nationbuilding Korsou. Rosalia, R.V. (2001). Rumbo pa Independensia Mental: Plan di Maneho i Akshon di Kultura di Korsou. Rousseau, D.M., Sitkin, S.B., Burt, R.S, & Camerer, C. (1998). Not so different after all: A cross discipline view of trust. Academy of Management Review. 23 (3), 393 404. Schnabel, P., Bij l, R. & de Hart, J. (2008). Betrekkelijke betrokkenheid Sociaal en Cultureel Rapport 2008, SCP, Den Haag. Schotborgh van de Ven, P.C.M. & van Velzen, S. (2013). National Integrity System Assessment: Curaao 2013. Trust and distrust. In S. Worchel & W. G. Austin (Eds.), Psychology of Intergroup Relations (pp. 213 228). Chicago: Nelson Hall.