C ura ao Environmental Statistics Compendium 2015 Centraal Bureau of Statistics Cura ao, January 2017
Central Bureau of Statistics WTC Building, Piscaderabay z/n Phone: (599 9) 839 2300 Email: email@example.com Website: www.cbs.cw Copyright Willemstad, Central Bureau of Statistics 2017 The contents of this publication may be quoted, provided that the source is mentioned accuratel y and clearly ISBN: 978 99904 5 047 7
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 2 Table of Contents Preface 4 Introduction 5 Methodology 6 1. Environmental Conditions and Quality 10 Topic 1.1.1. Atmosphere, climate and weather 11 Topic 1.1.3. Geological and Graphical information 13 Topic 1.2.2. Ecosystems and Biodiversity 1 7 Topic 1.3.1. Air quality 21 Topic 1.3.3. Marine water quality 24 2. Environmental Resources and Their Use 2 6 Topic 2.1.1. Stocks and changes of non energy mi neral resources 2 7 Topic 2.2.2. Production and use of energy 28 Topic 2.6.2. Abstraction and use of water 31 3. Residuals 33 Topic 3.1.1 Emission of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) 34 Topic 3.2.2 Collection and treatment of wastewa ter 36 Topic 3.3.2 Waste Management 37
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 3 4. Extreme Events and Disasters 3 9 Subcomponent 4.1. Natural Extreme Events and Disasters 41 Subcomponent 4.2. Technological Disasters 42 5. Human Settlements and Environmental Health 45 Topic 5.1.1 Urban and rural population 46 Topic 5.1.2 Access to water, sanitation and energy 48 Topic 5.1.5 Environmental concerns specific to urban settlements 49 Topic 5.2.1 Airborne diseases and conditions 50 Topic 5.2.2 Water related diseases and conditions 51 Topic 5.2.3 Vector borne diseases 51 6. Environment Protection and Management 55 Topic 6.1.1 Government protection expenditures 56 7. Tourism 57 Appendix 60 Bibliography 65 List of acrony ms 67 Contributors 69
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 4 Preface After a few years of preparation, the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) of Curaao is very pleased to release the first edition of the Environment Statistics Compendium. This is in alignment with the CBS b general use purposes. A compendium is a collection of informa tion in which a brief summary on a certain topic is given. In the case of environmental statistics, the Plan of Action on Environmental Statistics focuses on the methodology, planning and adaption of the Core Set of the FDES, the Framework for the Developm ent of Environmental Statistics of the U.N., into a Curaaoan version. The Core Set contains the most important environment statistics to describe statistical topics, thus providing guidance to environmental programs and policies. In this publication, data from existing CBS data sources, administrative sources and from both government and non government entities are compiled. Although it was not possible to receive all the data needed, and that the CBS still has data gaps to deal with, the Bureau gratefully acknowledges the support of all the experts and stakeholders who were committed to provide the statistical data and information needed. Our aim is to issue this publication annually. In principle, the data presented cover the years 2010 to 2015. This pub lication is written by Mr. Chris Jager, senior statistician Business Statistics and Environmental Statistics. The Director Drs. Sean de Boer
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 5 Introduction The demand for environment statistics is increasing in tandem with the ongoing environmental cha llenges faced by modern societies, such as population pressure, energy issues, sustainable development and climate change. The environment is ever more present in public policies and development plans. With its many islands and Small Island Developing Stat es ( SIDS), the Caribbean is no exception, and neither is Curaao. The realization that human wellbeing and development depends on the environment has led to an increasing emphasis on environmental and sustainability concerns (e.g. the 2013 report on Strate gies for Sustainable Long Term Economic Development 1 and the National Development Plan Curaao 2015) on which decisions and actions need to be taken. Of paramount importance to these actions is the regular production of environment statistics of the highes t quality. These statistics portray key information about the state of the environment and its changes through time. Furthermore, they give information to organizations, students and the public, and can be used as input and support for fact based policymak ing. As in other developing countries and SIDS, environment statistics represent a new and emerging domain which is typically endowed with limited (technical, financial and human) resources and is challenged by an institutional setup and inter institutiona l coordination that are still in development. The Compendium is structured in 7 sections: 1. Environmental conditions and quality 2. Environmental resources and their use 3. Residuals and waste 4. Extreme events and disasters 5. Human settlements and environmental hea lth 6. Environment protection and management 7. Tourism 1 Strategies for Sustai nable Long
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 6 Methodology Environment statistics give us information about the state of as well as changes in environmental conditions, the quality and availability of environmental resources, the impact of human ac tivities and natural events on the environment, the impact of changing environmental conditions, as well as the societal actions and economic measures taken by societies to avoid or mitigate these impacts and to provide the services that are essential for life and human wellbeing. Environment statistics thus cover a wide range of information. Their sources are spread out over a variety of organizations and data producers, and numerous methods are applied for t heir compilation. To effectively produce environment statistics, specific statistical and environmental expertise, knowledge, institutional development and adequate resources are necessary. Similar to many other countries, Curaao is limited in its organi zational, technical and financial capacity and is challenged by a lack of cooperation and by data gaps. Therefore, the development of environment statistics require a proper framework, which is why the FDES and especially the Core Set were chosen as useful tools to be used by the CBS to set up and enhance these statistics. The FDES, developed by the Statistical Department of the United Nations (UNSD), is a multi purpose statistical framework that is comprehensive in nature and marks out the scope of enviro nment statistics. It was first published in 1984 and revised in 2013. It provides a structure to guide the collection and compilation of environment statistics, and brings together data from various relevant areas and sources. It is broad and holistic in n ature, covering the issues and aspects of the environment that are relevant for policy analysis and decision making. Its primary objective is to guide countries like Curaao, which are at early stages in the development of their environment statistics prog rams. The FDES organizes environment statistics into six components which are broken down into topics and individual statistics. The objective of the Core Set of environment statistics of the FDES is to serve as a limited set of environment statistics that are of high priority and relevance to countries. This Core Set is actually the according to the relevance, availability and methodological development of th ese statistics. The first component, Environmental conditions and quality brings together statistics related to the conditions and quality of the natural envi ronment and their changes. The second component,
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 7 Environmental Resources and their use groups together statistics related to availability and use of environmental resources. The third component Residuals includes statistics related to the discharge of residuals from production and consumption processes, like emissions and waste. Statistics related to both natural and technological Disasters and extreme events and their impacts are covered by the fourth component. The fifth component brings together sta tistics related to Human settlements and environmental health The sixth component, Environment protection, management and engagement groups statistics relevant to societal responses and economic measures aimed at protecting the environment and managing e nvironmental resources. Environmental conditions and quality (component 1) are at the center of the FDES. As depicted in Figure 1, all six components are intrinsically related to each other. The dotted lines separating the components are an indication of the continuous interactions among them. These interactions are between and among all the components of the FDES. Figure 1. The FDES components environmental concer ns, priorities, possibilities and available resources. The Core Set of environment statistics is of high priority and relevance to most countries and has a sound and clear methodological foundation. It is well suited to provide guidance in determining prio rities. During a CARICOM workshop in April 2014, it became clear that it is necessary for Curaao as well as other Caribbean countries to add Tourism as a 7 th component to the Core Set of the FDES
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 8 framework, in accordance with the CARICOM indicato rs and in view of the high social and economic importance of tourism in Caribbean countries. As the information about the environment keeps developing, the availability of environmental information will continue increasing in the near future. The dissemina tion of information and the regular publication of this compendium will eventually enhance the needed cooperation, quality and completeness of environmental statistics in Curaao.
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 9
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 10 1. Environmental Conditions and Quality Component 1 of the Core Set of the FDES includes statistics about meteorological, geographical, biological as well as physical and chemical characteristics of the environment and their change over time. Many of these natural conditions change very slowly as a result of natural processe atmosphere or human influence. On the other hand, other natural conditions can show immediate and dramatic effects. Importantly, changes in environmental conditions and quality are the result of combined and accumulated impacts of natural and human processes and activities. Photo: C. Jager
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 11 Topic 1.1.1. Atmosphere, climate and weather This topic covers data on atmospheric and climatic conditions over time. Information on weather describes the short term behavior of the atmospher e on the island and is recorded by the Meteorological Department. Climate is determined by long term weather conditions and includes aspects such as temperature and precipitation. Curaao has a semi arid climate with irregular and sometimes heavy rainfall, with distinct dry and rainy seasons. The dry season runs from February through June, whereas the rainy season starts in September and ends in January. The months of July and August can be considered as transitional months. During the rainy season, rain sh owers occur usually during the early morning or early to late evening hours. The island is characterized by warm tropical temperatures with the highest mean temperatures occurring in September, sometimes exceeding 33C. Mean minimum temperatures can be as low as 23 24C in December and January. The seawater around the islands averages around 27C and are coldest (average 25.9C ) around February March, and warmest (average 28.2C) around September October. In general, the skies are mostly clear to partly c loudy. Temperature in degrees centigrade Curaao Int. Airport Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec YEAR Table 1: Average temperature 1) 1981 2010 2) 26.5 26.6 27.1 27.6 28.2 28.5 28.4 28.7 28.9 28.5 27.9 27.0 27.8 2010 27.4 27.1 28 .1 28.4 29.2 28.6 29.1 29.6 28.5 28.4 27.1 26.6 28.2 2011 26.7 26.5 25.5 26.8 27.6 28.4 28.1 28.8 28.6 28.0 27.9 27.0 27.5 2012 26.1 26.3 26.6 27.4 28.3 28.3 28.6 28.8 29.0 27.8 26.8 26.1 27.5 2013 26.6 27.1 27.6 27.9 28.5 28.8 28.8 29.1 29.5 29.1 27.7 26.6 28.1 2014 25.7 26.7 27.1 27.6 27.8 28.5 28.5 29.0 29.2 29.0 28.2 27.8 27.9 2015 27.1 27.4 27.2 27.8 27.9 28.2 28.4 29.1 29.8 29.3 28.3 27.7 28.2 5 year mean 26.4 26.8 26.8 27.5 28.0 28.4 28.5 29.0 29.2 28.6 27.8 27.0 27.8 Jan Feb M ar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec YEAR Table 2: Average maximum temperature 1981 2010 2) 29.9 30.1 30.7 31.4 32.0 32.1 32.1 32.7 32.8 32.1 31.1 30.3 31.4 2010 31.2 30.7 31.7 31.8 32.6 30.4 32.3 32.8 31.7 31.4 29.8 29.4 31.3 2011 29.6 29.8 28.2 29. 8 30.4 31.8 31.4 32.3 32.0 31.1 30.8 29.4 30.6 2012 29.1 29.7 29.5 30.9 31.4 32.0 31.9 32.0 32.6 31.2 29.8 29.0 30.8 2013 29.8 30.7 30.9 31.3 31.8 32.1 32.2 32.6 33.0 32.4 30.7 29.7 31.4 2014 29.5 30.2 30.5 30.7 30.8 31.4 31.9 32.7 32.7 32.5 31.2 31.0 3 1.3 2015 30.6 31.2 30.7 31.3 31.2 31.3 31.9 32.6 33.6 33.1 31.4 30.4 31.6
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 12 5 year mean 29.7 30.3 30.0 30.8 31.1 31.7 31.9 32.4 32.8 32.1 30.8 29.9 31.1 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec YEAR Table 3: Average minimum tempera ture 1981 2010 2) 24.4 24.5 24.9 25.6 26.3 26.5 26.1 26.5 26.6 26.2 25.6 24.9 25.7 2010 25.3 25.2 26.3 26.3 27.0 27.1 26.8 27.4 25.7 25.7 24.5 24.2 26.0 2011 24.4 24.4 23.5 24.9 25.5 26.2 26.1 26.2 26.2 25.6 25.2 24.6 25.2 2012 23.7 23.9 24.9 25.2 26.3 26.4 26.4 26.6 26.6 26.3 24.4 23.5 25.4 2013 24.3 24.9 25.8 25.9 26.3 26.8 26.8 26.8 26.9 27.0 25.2 24.1 25.9 2014 23.4 24.9 25.1 25.9 26.0 26.8 26.5 26.7 27.0 26.7 24.7 25.6 25.8 2015 24.6 25.3 24.9 25.9 26.2 26.5 26.4 27.0 27.7 27.2 26.2 26.1 26.2 5 year mean 24.1 24.7 24.8 25.6 26.1 26.5 26.4 26.7 26.9 26.6 25.1 24.8 25.7 1) Average of daily 24 hourly observations Rainfall Curaao Int. Airport Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec YEAR Average monthly rainfall (in mm) 1981 2010 1) 46 29 14 19 21 22 41 40 49 102 122 96 601 2010 142 0 1 22 12 75 44 5 122 154 298 217 1092 2011 105 15 47 9 53 18 17 7 26 68 168 96 629 2012 58 44 32 15 19 4 18 19 7 79 65 80 440 2013 19.4 4.2 1.3 12.2 12.9 15.0 13.1 40.7 124.6 18.7 181.3 85.7 529 2014 29.0 11.0 0.4 0.6 5.9 7.1 15.3 36.3 17.3 55.2 146.0 60.2 384 2015 37.7 15.4 62.4 15.7 3.4 2.1 16.1 6.3 10.2 28.2 131.1 11.8 340 5 year mean 49.8 17.9 28.6 10.5 18.8 9.2 15.9 21.9 37.0 49.8 138.3 66.7 4 65 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec YEAR Number of rain days 1981 2010 1) 8 5 3 7 2 3 6 4 5 8 11 11 73 2010 1 0 0 3 3 7 7 2 9 14 20 17 83 2011 9 6 4 2 7 5 1 1 4 14 11 17 81 2012 14 10 0 4 5 2 1 3 4 6 6 8 63 2013 5 2 1 2 3 4 4 5 7 5 10 12 60 2014 9 3 0 0 1 1 5 5 4 6 15 10 59 2015 10 3 8 1 1 1 3 2 3 4 10 3 49 5 year mean 9 5 3 2 3 3 3 3 4 7 10 10 62 Source: Meteorological Department Curaao
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 13 Topic 1.1.3. Geological and geographical information This to pic includes general geological and topographic information, presenting statistics that inform on the extent and characteristics of the territory and its relief. These characteristics typically change slowly over time and as such, are normally static. Beca use of their nature, these geological and geographical data are often presented in the form of maps. Shown are two maps: a geological map of Carmabi (figure 2) and a vegetation map of C. E. Beers et al 2 (figure 3). Concerning geographical information it km 2 The total surface of coral reefs is 16 km 2 (van Duyl, 1985) and the mangroves have a surface of less than 0.6 km 2 ( http://www.unesco.org/csi/pub/papers/pors.htm) The geological history of Curaao began in the late Cretaceous period, about 90 million years ago, still within the age of the dinosaurs 3 Since then, a multitude of processes have shaped and reshaped the foundations beneath our feet, processes that are continuously ongoing. The island as we kno w it is basically a snapshot in geological time. Four distinct rock groups represent the geological structure of the island: lava formation, the Knip Group, the Middle Curaao Formation and Limestone (source: Carmabi). The Lava Formation consists of volcan ic rocks or basalt and represents the oldest geological feature on the island. This formation was formed below sea level during the Cretaceous Period. The basalt is ocean surface The Knip Group overlies the volcanic sequence and hence is somewhat younger. Its significant difference in appearance with the older volcanic rocks is the distinct layering. This is a characte ristic of sedimentary rocks. The Mid Curaao Formation originated through a reorganization of the geological features that had formed thus far some 65 million years ago. A series of endogenous forces, likely earthquakes, but also the slow rising of the is land (0.25 0.50mm per year) associated with tectonic movements, resulted in 2 Landscape ecological vegetation map of the island of Curac ao, Netherlands 3 No fossil remains of these giants can be found on Curaao today, because at that time a 5 kilometer deep ocean marked the position of the Island to be.
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 14 sequential sand and rock deposits in trenches or valleys on the island or on the slopes of the island Limestone Formations, Formation and the limestone Terraces, were formed 5 million years ago. Except for sporadic rock formation in the Eocene, no significant rock formation occurred on Curaao between the Mid Curaao Formation and the recent Limestone Formations. Five million day Curaao respectively. Coral reef formation occurred in the shallow waters around these islands. These old est reef formations are still visible as the sloping limestone mountains along the Leeward shore. The Limestone Terraces then arose as coral growth tracked the variable sea levels associated with glacial and interglacial cycles. errace was formed some 2 million years ago. year ago) on which Tera Kr is built. Two younger terraces were formed 0.5 million and 30,000 years ago, th e latter now forming the Hato Plain. The most recent glacial period occurred 20.000 years ago 80m, referred to as the Second Drop Off. Figure 2: Geological map of Curaao Source: Carmabi
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 15 The vegetation of the island can be generally characterized as dry woodland vegetation. The vegetation map (figure 3) is based on a landscape and vegetation survey from 1988 to 1990, scale 1:50.000. It consisted of interpretations of aer ial photographs and fieldwork. According to the Landscape Ecological Vegetation Map of Beers, de Freitas and Ketner, the island is subdivided into seven main landscapes. Each in turn is divided into sub landscapes, which are characterized by terrain featur es and plant communities. The different landscapes comprise 21 different vegetation types, ranging from dry climatic evergreen types to seasonal desert like scrublands and edaphic vegetation types, such as mangroves areas near salias. Almost everywhere o n Curaao, the vegetation is (over)grazed, particularly around the villages. Grazing has a major impact on the natural vegetation, resulting in a reduction of the vegetation cover and dominance of weedy species. A large area around Willemstad has hardly a ny spots left with natural vegetation sufficiently large to be mapped. The area has been mapped as urban/industrial/agricultural, which points to an enormous expansion of human activities, such as urbanization, industrialization and tourism development. In many parts of the island, these trends have been and are still destroying, fragmenting and polluting most of the remaining wilderness sites. Curaao has several sites which have an exceptional conservation value. Besides the Christoffel National Park, t hese include parts of the plantations Knip, Jeremi and St. Hironymus, the coastal terraces between Hato and Boca Ascension, the plantation of Malpais and surrounding properties, the fresh water basin of Muizenberg, the limestone terrace landscape and coast al zone stretching from Caracas Bay to Oostpunt, the salias of Jan Thiel and St. Marie, the main mangrove areas and the north coast reefs from Playa Canoa to Oostpunt, including St. Joris Bay.
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 16 Figure 3: Curaao Vegetation map
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 17 Topic 1.2.2. E cosystems and Biodiversity The topic of ecosystems and biodiversity covers physical quantitative and qualitative information about the main ecosystems, including the extent, characteristics and biological components (biodiversity) of these ecosystems. The extent and conditions of the ecosystems determine their capacity to produce ecosystem services. The reefs are an important ecosystem and are subjected to a variety of human related stressors like overfishing, coastal development, (underground) sewage di scharge, chemical pollution and artificial beach construction. Though threatened, the reefs Curaao harbors are still among the best in the region. Especially the north shore and eastern and western sides of the south coast harbor healthy coral communities 4 (figure 4). Statistics on the biological components of ecosystems provide information on the condition of plants, animals and living habitats, e.g. species at risk of extinction. Although information about ecosystems in Curaao is in devel opment and will therefore become increasingly available, using it for statistics describing ecosystems is still rather infrequent and non systematic. Ecosystems Table 6: Threatened species Estimated numbers Birds Caribbean Coot (Fulic a caribaea) 1000 Scarlet ibis West Indian whistling duck Fulvous whistling duck American flamingo Species Invertebrates Fire corals 4 Lace corals 1 Black corals 10 Stony corals 69 Queen conch 1 Spiny lobster 1 4
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 18 Reptiles Sea Turtles n.a. Plants Endemic plants 2 Estimated numbers Mammals Curacao White tail Deer 250 estimate (2006) Bats Glossophaga longirostris elongata 2500 L. curasoe n.a. Mormoops megalophylla intermedia n.a. Natali s tumidirostris n.a. Myotis nesopolus n.a. Pteronotus davy n.a. Noctilio leporinus n.a. Fish Queen triggerfish n.a. Lancer dragonet n.a. Atlantic goliath grouper n.a. Nassau grouper n.a. Lined seahorse n.a. Yellowedge g rouper n.a. Snowy grouper n.a. Atlantic white marlin n.a. Hogfish n.a. Mutton snapper n.a. Cubera snapper n.a. Blue marlin n.a. Giant manta n.a. Tarpon n.a. Yellowmouth grouper n.a. Red porgy n.a. Cano toadfish n.a. Bigeye tuna n.a. Atlantic Bluefin tuna n.a. Sharks & rays Bigeye thresher n.a. Smalltooth sawfish n.a. Whale shark n.a.
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 19 Scalloped hammerhead n.a. Great hammerhead n.a. Source: Carmabi 2014 Figure 4: hard coral coverage Carmabi 2015 Biodiversity is the variety of life, species and ecosystems. It boosts ecosystem productivity and is strongly related to e.g. health, agriculture and natural resources. In addition, the richer the diversity of life, the greater the opportun ity for medical discoveries, economic development, and adaptive responses to challenges such as climate change. The topic of biodiversity includes statistics on the diversity of flora and fauna species, on protected areas and on protected flora and fauna species. The typical themes here include the number and population trends of known species of flora and fauna, terrestrial as well as marine. The flora of Curaao has 541 species of which 5 are endemic. This is comparable to other arid and semi arid areas
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 20 in the Caribbean (DCNA, 2013). Some of the species of foreign origin, imported or escaped from cultivation, have become invasive by turning into notorious weeds that outcompete other species and change the ecosystem. Biodiversity Table 7: Fa una species: number: Birds 223 scleractinian corals 69 sponges 88 marine polychaetes 132 marine amphipods 20 marine fishes 611 freshwater fishes 20 Mammals 3 Reptiles 3 Source: Carmabi, 2015. Table 8: Protected areas, incl. marine area km 2 Ramsar 5 ; since 2013 Northwest Curacao* 24.4 Muizenberg (wetland) 0.65 Rif St. Marie (wetland) 6.7 Malpais/St. Michiel (wetland) 11 Overlaps with Shete Boka and Christoffel Park Table 9: Nature parks without formal legal protection km 2 Curac ao Marine Park (since 1983) 10.4 Christoffel Park (since 1978) 23 Shete Boka (since 1994) 4.7 5 The Ramsar Convention formally the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands recognizing the fundamental ecological functions of wetlands and their economic, cultural, scientific, and recreational value. It is named after the city of Ramsar in Iran where the Convention was signed in 1971
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 21 Topic 1.3.1. Air quality Statistics on air quality include the ambient concentration of the most important pollutants, including solid particles, gase s and other relevant pollutants that can have a negative effect on human and ecosystem health. Impact stations are located near major sources of pollution and measure the direct impact on air quality. Air quality on Curaao is measured by the Public Heal at two monitoring stations near the oil refinery. One station is at Beth Chaim (which is an industrial area) and the other one at Kas Chikitu, a residential area, both located west of the refinery. The measureme nts are performed under ISO accreditation 6 Monitoring stations Beth Chaim and Kas Chikitu photos: Government of Curacao For guidelines on air quality, the CBS uses the Global Update 2005 of the World Health Organization (WHO) 7 For SO 2 the WHO maximum concentration is 20 g/m 3 daily, i.e. 24 hour mean For PM 10 this is 50 g/m 3 daily, i.e. 24 hour mean Particulate matter ( PM ) or a tmospheric particulate matter is microscopic solid or liquid matter suspended in the atmosphere. These affect bo th the climate and human health. Subtypes of atmospheric particle matter include r espirable suspended particle ( RSP ), which are particles with a diameter of 10 micrometers or less, also known as PM 10 and fine particles with a diameter of 2.5 6 For more informati on, see www.luchtmetingencuracao.org 7 http://www.who.int/phe/health_topics/outdoorair/outdoorair_aqg/en/
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 22 micrometers or less, PM 2.5. Total Suspended Particulates (TSP or Total SP) are tiny particles of less than 100 micrometers. Particulates are the deadliest form of air pollution due to their ability to penetrate deep into the lungs and blood streams unfiltered, causing permanent DNA mutations heart attacks and premature death In 2013, a study involving more than 300,0 00 people in nine European countries revealed that there is actually 3 in PM 10 the lung cancer rate rose by 22 percent 8 The levels for SO 2 and particulates are mainly, but not only, from the combustion of petroleum and other combustibles of the refinery and the utility plants at Dokweg. A limited contribution from transport (SO 2 ) and natural resources (particulates) cannot be fully excluded. As can be seen in figures 5 and 6 (and ta bles 10 and 11 of the appendix), since 2010, the average concentration levels for SO 2 have exceeded the WHO levels (20 g/m 3 ) almost every month. The low concentrations for 2010 are not representative due to the fact that the refinery was inactive for eigh t months. As can clearly be seen in figures 5 and 6, these high SO 2 levels have increased even further. Although the reason for this is not fully known, it is at least partly due to an increased production in the 2010 2015 period (as can be seen in table 1 4, Refining Index) and partly due to the extension of installed production capacity at the Dok power plant in 2014, from 48 to 84 MW (an increase of 75%). The contribution of SO 2 concentrations from the utility plant at Dokweg in relation to the total meas ured concentrations at Beth Chaim is estimated at 33.2 percent and for Kas Chikitu, 36.6 percent, based on an analysis of the 24 hour mean levels in 2013 and 2014. In the case of Beth Chaim (appendix, table 10), the levels increased to even more than 10 t imes the WHO maximum concentration. In 2015, this happened in six consecutive months (April till September), and in December, with a record (as in June) of almost 16 times the WHO limit. It goes without saying that this poses a serious and ongoing threat f or the health of thousands of people in the region and vicinity of the refinery. Part of the intended solution to cope with this serious health problem is the use natural gas as fuel in the refinery and the CRU/BOO plant 9 This could considerably help redu ce the SO 2 air pollution in the future. At this moment, the execution of this project is on hold. 8 The smalle r PM 2.5 3 as these can penetrate deeper into the lungs ( The Lancet Oncology 14, July 10, 2013 ) 9 The Curacao Refinery Utilities (CRU) manages the BOO power plant (Build, Own and Ope rate) of which the Refineria di Krsou (RdK) is the owner.
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 23 Figure 5: SO 2 and TSP, Beth Chaim Figure 6: SO 2 and PM 10 Kas Chikitu
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 24 Topic 1.3.3. Marine water quality Relevant statistics on marine and coastal water quality and pollutant concentrations can include (but are not restricted to) nutrients, chlorophyll, organic matter and contaminants, metals, as well as coral bleaching. Unfortunately, no recent data are available. Standards are difficult to produce and for this reason are not available. Table 12: Marine water quality island wide average concentration Nutrients: nitrates in marine water 2007 PO4 (phosphate) 2007 Total Dissolved P 2007 NO 2 & NO 3 (nitrates) 2007 NH 4 (ammonium) 2007 Dissolved inorganic N Chlorophyll in marine water 2007 Organic matter, biochemical O 2 deman d 2007 too variable Coral bleaching (% corals affected) 1998 16.2 2003 9.5 2005 5 2010 10 Source: Carmabi.
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 25
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 26 2. Environmental Resources and Their Use Component 2 of the Core Set covers the living and non living constituents of the Earth, whic h together comprise the environment that may provide benefits to humanity. Environmental resources include non energy and energy minerals, land, soil resources, biological and water resources. They can be renewable (e.g. fish or water) or non renewable (e. g. minerals) and are used as important inputs in production and consumption. This component is closely related to the asset and physical flow account of the SEEA 10 the System of Environmental Economic Accounting of the UN. This is partly due to the fact t hat statistics on environmental resources and their use are focused on measuring stocks and changes in stocks of these resources. In the case of non renewable resources, continued extraction usually leads eventually to the depletion of the resource. photo: C. Jager 10 The System of Environmental Economic Accounting (SEEA) contains the internationally agreed standard concepts, definitions, classifications, accounting rules and tables for producing internationa lly comparable statistics on the environment and its relationship with the economy. The SEEA framework follows a similar accounting structure as the System of National Accounts (SNA) in or der to facilitate the integration of environmental and economic statistics.
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 27 Topic 2.1.1. Stocks and changes of non energy mineral resources Stocks of non energy mineral resources are defined as the amount of known deposits of mineral resources. The minerals in question vary from stone and sand to clay, c hemical and fertilizer minerals, salt and various other minerals. On Curaao, there are mining activities for the extraction of limestone, a very pure Calcium Carbonate (CaCO 3 ), from the mountain called Tafelberg. This calcium marine deposit was formed in a very dry and clear seawater environment over millions of years. This non energy mineral is not renewable, so its depletion reduces the availability in the environment over time. According to information of the Curaao Mining Company, it is estimated tha t stocks will last till 2045. As can be seen in table 13, production of blocks and sand as well as the mining index are clearly diminishing. Limestone from the Tafelberg is used for a number of applications such as asphalt, concrete, plaster work, paves, glass production and water purification. Table 13: Stocks of mineral resources, limestone 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Production index blocks 275 252 242 242 189 194 Production index sand 146 145 144 140 117 125 Mining index CBS 174 16 4 159 157 126 132 Turnover index 100 82.8 75.2 105.1 90.5 90.5 Source: Curaao Mining Company
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 28 Topic 2.2.2. Production and use of energy Energy production refers to the capture, extraction or manufacturing of fuels or energy in forms whi ch are ready for general consumption (final use). Energy is produced for human consumption in a number of different ways, depending on its source. Energy production, transformation, distribution and consumption are made with different efficiency rates and these processes cause distinct environmental impacts, such as land use change, air pollution, GHG emissions (Greenhouse Gasses) and waste. That is why producing statistics to describe these activities is key to environmental sustainability policy (source: FDES 2013). Total energy production originates from non renewable and renewable sources. These constitute key environment statistics that can assist when analyzing the sustainability of the energy mix. Renewable energy (such and wind and solar) is transfor med from sources that replenish this flow. It is also cleaner than non renewable energy (such as gasoil and diesel oil) and its carbon footprint is substantially less than that of fossil fuel energies. The initial target for renewable production was set at 25 percent in 2015. In 2012, two wind parks became operational, supplying approximately 16 percent of the total installed capacity (table 15). Since 2011, households and companies are allowed to produce their own renewable electricity up to their own us age, including a grid connection and feed in compensation. Though a success, in the end of 2014, measures were taken by the utility companies and the government by introducing a service ed the use of solar panels. Users who install solar panels to generate renewable energy would have to pay ANG 16.00 per panel per month. For businesses, the rate is ANG 32.00 per panel per month. The oil import in volumes has already been decreasing and w ill decrease further in the near future. Although many steps still need to be taken, the route is set towards a new era with less oil and more renewables.
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 29 Table 14: Production and use of energy 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Water production (1000 m 3 ) 13,846 14,398 14,560 14,495 14,232 13,759 Connections*: 71,524 72,668 73,764 75,110 76,628 77,792 Electricity production (1000 kWh) 868,910 902,239 910,254 894, 064 872,259 820,120 Refining Index: (1993 = 100) 41.8 78.5 81.4 83.4 89.6 81.6 Wind: installed capacity in MW per Dec. 8 8 30 30 30 30 Solar: official installed capacity in MW per Dec. nil nil 0.1 7.7 16.7 20** Sources: Aqualectra (water and electricity), NuCapital (wind), BTP (solar), CBSC (Refinery) each January ** adapted projection (due to the introduction of the 2015 service fee) fro m 28.6 to 20 MW
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 30 Table 15: Product mix electricity, installed capacity per end of 2015 MW % Old Dokweg plant (gasoil): 48 25.9 New Dokweg plant (gasoil): 35 18.9 Diesel generators, refinery (gasoil): 33 17.8 Wind turbines: 30 16.2 Solar pa nels: 17 9.2 CRU/BOO (pitch/IFO*): 22 11.9 Total: 185 100 Power requirement 120 Reserve aggregate Mundu Nobo: 21 Figure 7: Installed capacity in MW Sources: Aqualectra and NuCapital *IFO = Industrial Fuel Oil
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 31 Topic 2.6.2. Abstr action and use of water Water is abstracted from surface and groundwater resources for economic activities and households. It can be abstracted for direct own use or for distribution to other users. Surface water is very scarce in Curaao and groundwater a bstraction is widely practiced, mostly for agriculture. Potable water is produced via desalination of seawater using steam driven flash evaporators and reverse osmosis. Water losses can be significant. Unfortunately, that is the case in Curaao. According to the that time amounted to 30 percent of the distributed volume of water. Of this percentage, 13.5 percent was due to physical losses and 17.5 percent to so called administrative losses, including water use through illegal connections. In 2006, the same percentage of 30 percent was mentioned in an advisory report by Drs. M. Karskens 11 More recent figures of 2013, from the Bureau for Telecommunication, Post & U tilities (BTP&U), show that the losses due to non revenue water were 24 to 28 percent of total production. According to the BTP&U (World Bank 2006 12 ), a reasonable level of non revenue water for developing countries is 17.5 percent. Bearing in mind that i n Curaao potable water is equivalent to energy, as it is produced by desalinating sea water in conjunction with electricity production, the high levels of unaccounted for water represent a serious economic cost. For 2014, this can be estimated at 24 perce nt of 24.2 mln. m 3 or 5.8 mln. m 3 For that reason, several actions and programs of reducing water losses have been initiated by the water production and distribution company. The most recent action plan is focused on reducing the water losses to 17 perce nt in 3 years, by 2018. 11 Drs. M.W.R. Michiel Karskens, (September 2006). Energieconsument op Curaao 12 The challenge of reducing non revenue water (NRW) in developing countries how the private sector ca n help: a look at performance based service contracting. World Bank, January 2006
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 32 Table 16: Abstraction of water no. of households 2001 2011 A well with an electric pump 3846 5719 A well with a windmill 1194 1134 A well without a pump or windmill 830 982 No well 37048 46774 Not reported 243 327 Total: 43161 54936 Source: CBS Census 2001 and 2011
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 33 3. Residuals This component is closely related to the physical flow accounts of the SEEA framework (chapter 2). Flow accounts contain flows from the economy to the environment. Their statistics give us information about the amount and characteristics of residuals generated by human production and consumption processes, their management and their final release to the environment. Residuals are solid, liquid and gaseous substances that are discarde d, discharged or emitted directly to the environment, or captured, collected, treated or reused. The main groups of residuals are emissions, wastewater and waste. photo: Stichting Uniek Curaao photo: C. Jager
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 34 Topic 3.1.1 Emission of Greenhou se Gases (GHGs) A special category of air emissions is the emissions of GHGs. Emission inventories of GHGs are compiled according to the guidelines developed by the IPCC 13 under the auspices of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). GHGs i nclude both direct and indirect GHGs, such as sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The most important GHGs are both direct and are carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ). At the end of 2011, a first Greenhouse Gas Inventory or Carbon Footprint Study was executed for Curaao for the year 2010 by the CBS in cooperation with Kool Caribe Consult. Such a footprint gives information about the contribution of Curaao to emissions of GHGs, which are the most important and fundamental cause of the greenh ouse effect and climate change By the end of 2016, a second GHG inventory was in progress by the CBS, for the year 2015. As can be seen in table 17, most of the emissions are related to the refinery and the utility industry. The production of energy for t he refinery as well as the refinery itself contribute for more than 30 Landfill and transport account only for some 9 percent. Tabel 17: GHG's 2010: CO2 and CH4 kton relative Transport 420 9.3% Cooking, natural gas 24 0.5% Production of electricity and water 835 18.4% Industry: refinery 1446 31.8% Industry: production of energy for refinery 1419 31.2% Industry: production of concrete 10 0. 2% landfill 388 8.5% Total: 4542 100.0% Source: Carbon Footprint Study 13 The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ( IPCC ) is a scientific intergovernmental body under the auspices of the United Nations It was first established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 35 Figure 8: Relative share of emissions capita: 149310 per capita Table 18: Emissions and benchmarks in ton CO2 Total Curaao kt on CO 2 4542 30.4 Total excl. refinery / CRU kton CO 2 1676 11.2 Aruba 2,396 21.7 Colombia 63,387 1.5 Kuwait 86,075 26.3 Trinidad 37,006 37.3 Netherlands 173,102 10.5 Saudi Arabia 433,202 17.2 Venezuela 165,415 6.0 U.S .A. 5,832,194 19.7 Figures are 2008 emissions of CO 2 World Statistics UN July 2010.
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 36 Topic 3.2.2 Collection and treatment of wastewater Generated wastewater can basically be discharged in two ways: directly to the environment by the generator or by being collected in sewerage systems and being treated in wastewater treatment plants. The collection and treatment of wastewater on Curaao is very important, especially because of the fact that high concentrations of nutrients, such as ammonia an d nitrates, can be a serious problem for our coral reefs and thus our (diving) tourism and fisheries (G.J. Gast 1998). While the nitrate norm for drinking water for human beings is 20 ppm, corals in a seawater aquarium will die at 2 ppm and corals on a cor al reef are seriously stressed at much lower levels. The problem is that corals are naturally adapted to a low nutrient environment and are thus extremely sensitive to quite low levels of nutrient pollution. There are indications that sewage waters are pro bably a major problem. A study by Bak & Nieuwland (R. Bak and G. Nieuwland,1995) indicates that coral cover at three transects in Curaao and one at Karpata in Bonaire has declined considerably during a period of twenty years. The Karpata area is a fully p rotected area with no fishing or anchoring. This decline can thus be related to global causes, to a nutrient problem or possibly a synergistic effect between the two. In Curaao there is no large scale agriculture. Use of pesticides is also very limited. Most pesticides are used in households. The calcareous zones are very porous and sewage nutrients will seep out to the sea almost unimpeded. In areas with impermeable volcanic soils or clays, this is much less of a problem, since the nutrients are unlikely to reach the sea. In the calcareous coastal zone in Curaao, there has been quite some housing development (Jan Thiel, Blauwbaai, Boca St. Michiel, the Rif area, Cas Abou, Coral Cliff, Lagun, Westpunt Playa Kalki). This has probably caused quite some seep age of sewage water directly to the sea via cracks in the porous limestone. Wastewater collected at the sewage treatment plant at Klein Hofje in Curaao typically contains about 83 ppm of N products, and this value is probably indicative of other local wa stewater as well. There is also some seepage of sewage water via inner bays (Spanish Water, Schottegat, Piscadera Bay) and directly into the sea via groundwater (G.J. Gast, 1998). In some wells, nitrate concentrations as high as 100 ppm have been found. Cu raao has a large population, so there must have been considerable seepage of nutrients, especially via the Schottegat, and this could very well have been a factor in the decline of corals near the harbor entrance. This, however, did not affect areas furth er downstream, where the decline of coral cover set in much later.
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 37 Topic 3.3.2 Management of Waste This topic includes statistics on the amount of waste collected and transported to treatment facilities or their final disposal. It also includes the a mount treated by type of treatment or disposal, like recycling, incineration and landfilling. Waste covers discarded materials that are no longer required by the owner or user. It includes materials that are in solid or liquid state, but excludes wastewate r and emissions. The management of waste is one of the major challenges according to the National Report for Sustainable Development 14 The problems that threaten environmental sustainability include pollution of marine areas from domestic sewage, inadequat e sewage treatment facilities, industrial effluents and agricultural runoff, the management of toxic substances and ineffective regulations. Recycled materials consist mainly (by more than 98%) of building materials. Tabel 19: Municipal waste coll ected 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Deposited on Landfill 173907 176786 180874 143930 168743 176806 Recycled 18468 14728 29797 11729 53110 80357 Burned 63 155 70 147 94 81 Total: 192438 191669 210741 155806 221947 257244 In ton kg. Recycling at CRC: Curaao Recycling Company Burning at CIC; Caribbean Incineration Company Source: Selikor 14 National Report of Curaao for the 3 rd Conference on SIDS, September 2014
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Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 39 4. Extreme Events and Disasters This component contains statistics regarding the occurrence and impact of extreme events and disasters on human wellbeing and the infrastructure. It consists of two subcomponents: Natural Extreme Events and Disasters: frequency and intensity of extreme e vents and disasters deriving from natural phenomena, as well as their impact on human lives and habitats and the environment as a whole. Technological Disasters: occurrence and impact of disasters arising as a result of human intent, negligence or error, o r from faulty or failed technological applications. photo: Hurricane Tomas, Wikipedia
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 40 Topic 4.1. Natural Extreme Events and Disasters An extreme event is an event that is rare within its statistical reference distribution at a particula r location. An extreme event is normally as rare or rarer than the 10 th or 90 th percentile. A disaster is often described as a result of exposure to an extreme event. The Center for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED) defines a disaster as an to it and requires international assistance. For inclusion in this subcomponent, a disaster should be categorized using the CRED criteria. This means that at least one of the following criteria must be met: Ten or more people reported killed, One hundred or more people reported affected, Declaration of a state of emergency, or A call for international assistance has been made. In recent decades, because of an increase in extreme events, natural disasters have become more frequent, more intensive and also more destructive (UN FDES, 2013). Climate change has been associated with the increasing frequency and severity of extreme weather events. It has resulted in increased global temperatures, rising sea levels, increased storms and precipitation, droughts, floods, hurricanes, tornadoes and other climatic disruptions in many places around the world. As the occurrence and i ntensity of natural extreme events and disasters have increased globally, countries have been facing and will continue to face increasing social and economic impacts. November 1, 2010: Hurricane Tomas. The damage caused by this hurricane is estimated at A NG 200 mln. and it killed two people. This was the latest recorded tropical storm to strike the Windward Islands and Curaao. Tomas developed from a tropical wave east of the Windward Islands, quickly intensifying into a hurricane, moving through the Windward Islands and past St. Lucia After reaching Category 2 status on the Saffir Simpson scale Tomas quickly weakened to a tropical storm in the central Caribbean Sea Tomas later regained hurricane status as it reorganized near the Windward passage
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 41 photo: track of hurricane Tomas, Wikipedia Although the storm did not directly strike the ABC islands one of its outer rain bands stal led over the region and intensified during the night of November 1 to November 2. Curaao experienced its most extreme rain event in 40 years; as much as 265 mm was recorded over a 24 hour period in the eastern part of the island. The majority of the rain fell overnight in a heavy downpour, accompanied by a severe thunderstorm that triggered large scale power outages. Lightning strikes sparked three large fires in the oil refinery. The fires inflicted severe damage to several tanks, estimated at USD 10 million 15 Flights from Curaao International Airport were delayed due to the haza rdous conditions. Following hours of heavy rainfall, widespread floods made most roads in the region impassable, with dozens of cars swept away or stranded. The rains filled dams and overwhelmed drains, causing them to overflow. The neighborhoods of Salia Brievengat and Mahaai were among the hardest hit; hundreds of homes, gardens and businesses were inundated. Overall, Curaao suffered some of its worst flooding in history; insured losses acr oss the island exceeded ANG 110 million (USD 63mln), though total damage costs from Tomas were estimated at ANG 200 million (USD 115 million). 16 15 Sharlon Monart (November 3, 2010). 16 Sharlon Monart (November 25, 2010). Radio Netherlands Worldwide
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 42 photos: Curaao Chronicle Topic 4.2. Technological Disasters Disasters may a rise as a result of human intent, negligence or error, or from failed technological applications. Policy makers, analysts and civil society require statistics on technological disasters in order to understand who is ultimately responsible and what the imme diate and potential impact may be, as well as to assess and mitigate future risks. To date, records of global technological disasters show increasing frequency and impact on humans, the infrastructure and the environment. This reinforces the relevance and necessity of statistics on these issues. There are three types of technological disasters recognized by CRED. These are: Industrial accidents, which cover accidents associated with chemical spills, collapse, explosion, fire, gas leak, poisoning, radiatio n and other; Transport accidents, which cover accidents associated with air, road and water; and Miscellaneous accidents, which cover accidents associated with collapse, explosion, fire, and other disasters of varied origin. All these types of disasters c an impact large areas and affect both human safety and the environment in both the short and long term. August 17, 2012: Oil spill Bullenbaai A large amount of oil, thousands of barrels, leaked into Bullenbaai and caused a catastrophe in the 666 ha. natur al reservoir Salia St. Marie, a Ramsar wetland. It coated beaches, polluted mangrove swamps and glazed crabs, lizards and flamingos in petroleum tar. Initially, the oil refinery admitted that the oil came from their installations, but soon afterwards retr acted their declarations and the case went to court. Almost two years after the spill, the court came to a settlement with the Refinery. The main points of the agreement consist of a
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 43 package of technical measures, a tightening of procedures to reduce the risk of an oil leak in the future and a fine of ANG 10,000. Just eight days later, there was a disaster at the Amuay refinery at nearby Punto Fijo (Venezuela) when a gas leak set off an explosion on August 25, killing 42 people and sending toxic black clo uds of smoke into the air (source: Curaao Chronicle). photo: Curaao Chronicle photo: Uniek Curaao
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 44 December 15, 2012: Firework Explosion An explosion in a firework warehouse on an industrial estate killed four people. On e died at the scene, the others later. Furthermore, it wounded another four, of which one seriously. The building and three cars were destroyed. The cause of the incident is still unknown (source: Curaao Chronicle, December 17, 2012). photos : Curaao Chronicle
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 45 5. Human Settlements and Environmental Health This component contains statistics on the environment in which humans live and work, particularly with regard to living conditions and environmental health. They are important for the manageme nt and improvement of conditions related to human settlements, safe water, sanitation, and health, particularly in the context of rapid urbanization, increasing pollution, environmental degradation, disasters, extreme events and climate change. The wellbei ng and health risks associated with the environment (and also those posed by extreme events and disasters) can be substantially mitigated or increased by several factors. These include the appropriate infrastructure for the provision of water and sanitatio n, adequate waste disposal, wise land use planning, clean and safe transportation, safe building design and good housing and ecosystem health. The existence of these conditions can improve a given human settlement and the wellbeing and health of humans. Co nversely, vulnerable human settlements are often more impacted by the changing environment and recover more slowly from pollution, environmental degradation and extreme events and disasters. photo: C. Jager
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 46 Topic 5.1.1 Urban and rural po pulation Humans live primarily in rural or urban communities 17 building their homes, shelters and institutions, while using environmental resources to satisfy their human needs. Depending on the carrying capacity of ecosystems, these settlements and their use of environmental resources will affect environmental conditions, as well as human wellbeing and health. Statistics on the location of human settlements can be mainly found in traditional demographic statistics. The potential for the use of population d ata in the field of environment statistics is ample. They can be used not only as a reference but also in combination with other environment statistics to construct indicators. For instance, in combination with housing, water and sanitation statistics, the y can provide determinants of the environmental sustainability of human settlements and environmental health. The main statistics pertaining to this topic are rural, urban and total population, including population density. These statistics are an importan t and pivotal element for our environment and its sustainability. Already in the 18 th century, Thomas Malthus suggested that growing population rates would exceed resource growth, leading to catastrophic overpopulation 18 This because population grew exponentially while food supply grew arithmetically. These Malthusian catastrophes have not taken place on a global scale due to progress in agricultural technology. However, nowadays many argue that future pressures on food production combined with threats such as global warming, make overpopulation a still more serious threat in the future (source: Wikipedia) In January 2015, the total population of Curaao was 156,971 inhabitants, population density 354 people/km which is high and comparable to Martinique, the Philippines and Japan. Benchmarks for population density: Caribbean; 182, Colombia; 42, Dominica n Republic; 213, Japan; 336 and the Netherlands; 406 19 The number of households in 2001 was 43,161. In 2011 this was 54,936 and in 2014, 56,499. 17 At present, there are no (separate) urban and rural population figures. However, the CBS is planning to arrange this in the future. 18 Thomas Robert Malthus (1798) One immediate impact of Malthus's book was that it fueled the debate about the size of the population in Britain and led to (or at least greatly accelerated) the passing of the Census Act 1800 This Act enabled the holding of a national census in England starting in 1801 and continuing every ten years to the present. 19 World Population Data Sheet 2014, Population Reference Bureau.
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 47 Curaao Population 2000 2015 Births Deaths Immigration Emigration Corrections Population Pop./km 2 Growth 2000 2189 990 3833 10441 738 136969 308 3.5 2001 2047 1029 4198 8228 514 130822 295 4.5 2002 1842 1029 8441 6304 897 127296 287 2.7 2003 1929 1152 7712 4804 2173 131143 295 3.0 2004 1709 1175 5918 3952 592 132655 299 1.2 2005 1857 1088 6 392 3742 430 135747 306 2.3 2006 1867 1105 6144 3551 50 139596 314 2.8 2007 1868 1107 5726 4170 2 142902 322 2.4 2008 2001 1209 5212 4646 35 145220 327 1.6 2009 1898 1114 4640 4698 147 146543 330 0.9 2010 2032 1246 4910 4644 2110 147122 331 0.4 20 11 1974 1276 5276 4900 20 150284 338 2.1 2012 2039 1246 4878 4121 130 151378 341 0.7 2013 1959 1250 5392 4056 0 152798 344 0.9 2014 154843 349 1.4 2015 156971 354 1.3 CBS estimates compiled from various data sources and publicatio ns of the CBS. All data in this file are the most recent estimations that have been calculated, deducted or found for these years. Population date is January 1.
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 48 Topic 5.1.2 Access to water, sanitation and energy This topic incl udes information about access to water, sanitation and energy. Access to these basic services can have a positive effect on human health and wellbeing, thereby contributing to improved ation using an improved The metadata for MDG indicator 7.9 20 defines an improved sanitation facility as one that hygienically separates human excreta from human contact and includes flush or pour flush toilets or latrines connected to a sewer, septic tank or pit, etc. The last group of statistics under this topic refer to households with access to electricity and its price. Access to electricity is a measure of modern ene rgy services. The percentages in the tables shown here refer to the number of households. Table 21: Occupied living accommodations by type of water supply* 2001 % 2011 % Water supply line 42226 97.8 54295 98.8 Cistern or water well (groundwater) 47 0.1 2021 3.7 Water truck 15 0.0 36 0.1 Buying bottled water 187 0.4 184 0.3 Other water supply 184 0.4 420 0.8 Multiple responses are possible per living accommodation Source: CBS census Table 22: Occupied living accommodations by type of sanitation Drainage of the toilets via: 2001 % 2011 % 31123 72.1 42375 77.1 Septic tank n.r. 1703 3.1 Sewer 9801 22.7 10209 18.6 Other 379 0.9 240 0.4 Not applicable 50 208 Not reported 133 201 Source: CBS census 20 The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) indicator 7.9 is the proportion of the population using an improved sanitation facility. This is defined as the percentage of the population with access to an improved sanitation facility with respect to the total population.
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 49 Table 23: Type of electric supply 2001 % 2011 % Electricity grid 42201 97.8 54219 98.7 Own generator 63** 0.1 286 0.5 Solar energy/wind energy 71 0.1 Other power supply 19 0.04 425 0.8 Not re ported 143 126 Multiple responses are possible per living accommodation ** Including solar power Source: CBS census Topic 5.1.5 Environmental concerns specific to urban settlements The topic of environmental concerns is int ended to organize issues of specific relevance to urban areas. Depending on national and local conditions and priorities, additional environmentally relevant urban concerns should be included here. With regard to transportation, statistics can include the number of private, public and commercial vehicles by engine type. Most importantly from the environment statistics perspective, additional statistics could include the number of passengers transported by public transportation systems.
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 50 Table 24: Number o f motor vehicles 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Passenger cars 80973 61578 69035 67998 69062 69574 Number of cars/household 1.12 1.22 Motor lorries and pick ups 15878 12021 12908 12377 12079 12768 Motor buses 434 379 369 346 297 331 Taxis 1 93 179 159 138 141 138 Other cars 319 163 404 472 459 500 Motorcycles, incl. mopeds 1944 1117 1300 1689 1757 1758 Number of passenger cars: per km 182 139 155 153 156 157 Note: excluding motor vehicles owned by the government Number of motor vehicles registered per Dec. 31 The relatively low number of cars in 2011 is due to an administrative cleanup of the data Topic 5.2.1 Airborne diseases a nd conditions This topic includes all airborne diseases and conditions that are caused or worsened by exposure to unhealthy levels of pollutants (such as PM, SO 2 or O 3 ). Airborne diseases and conditions include, but are not limited to, upper and lower resp iratory disease, obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, allergic rhinitis, lung cancer, coronary artery heart disease and stroke. This topic includes health statistics on morbidity (such as incidence and prevalence) and mortality of these diseases or condi tions, as well as measurement of the associated impact on the labor force and on the economic costs. Although there are certainly reasons to believe that this topic is relevant to Curaao, e.g. asthma and lung cancer caused by PM and SO 2 emissions from the refinery, there is no statistical information available on this topic.
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 51 Topic 5.2.2 Water related diseases and conditions This topic includes all water related diseases and conditions that result from micro organisms and chemicals in the water humans d rink. Water related diseases and conditions are still a considerable public health problem in many countries. They include but are not limited to diseases caused by biological contamination, such as gastroenteritis infections caused by bacteria, viruses an d protozoa, and water borne parasite infections. Where available, this topic includes health statistics such as morbidity (incidence and prevalence) and mortality of these diseases or conditions, as well as measures of the associated impact on the labor fo rce and on the economic costs. In Curaao there are no recent known cases of legionella. The last legionella infections were in 1998 and 1999. Topic 5.2.3 Vector borne diseases This topic includes vector borne diseases that are transmitted by organisms e.g. insects, that carry viruses and bacteria. Common vector borne diseases include, but are not limited to, malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, chikungunya and Lyme disease. Some vector borne diseases are being directly affected by climate change, nota bly by the change in rain patterns and floods. This topic includes health statistics such as morbidity (incidence and prevalence) and mortality of these diseases or conditions, as well as measures of the associated impact on the labor force and on the econ omic costs. Table 25: Vector borne diseases 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Dengue* 2800 2654 720 680 159 Chikungunya 1847 Dengue and chikungunya** 3405 Source: Ministry of Health, Environment and Nature Including probable a nd suspected cases ** Including suspected cases
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 52 Y. Halabi & I. Gerstenbluth, Ministry of Health, Environment and Nature, Nov. 2015 Figure 9: Confirmed cases of dengue (i ncluding probable and suspected cases)
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 53 Y. Halabi & I. Gerstenblut h, Ministry of Health, Environment and Nature, Nov. 2015. DF = lab confirmed dengue fever, DHF = lab confirmed dengue and hemorrhagic fever 21 CHIKV = chikungunya Figure 10: Confirmed cases of dengue and chikungunya (i ncluding suspected cases) 21 Dengue fever is a mosquito borne disease caused by the dengue virus Recovery generally takes less than two to seven days. In a small proportion of cases, the disease develops into the life threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 54
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 55 6. Environ ment Protection and Management amount of resources it dedicates to the task, is especially important because it is related to information, awareness and the abil ity to finance environment protection activities and participate in efforts (sometimes international) directed at these activities. The component of environment protection and management organizes information on environment protection and resource managem ent expenditure with the aim of improving the environment and maintaining the health of ecosystems. Statistics about environmental governance, institutional strength, enforcement of regulations and extreme event preparedness are also considered. This compo nent also contains information on a wide variety of programs and actions to increase awareness, including environmental information and education, as well as activities aimed at diminishing environmental impacts and improving the quality of local environme nts. photo: C. Jager
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 56 Topic 6.1.1 Government protection expenditures This topic includes government expenditure primarily aimed to protect the environment and manage resources. Government expenditure to protect the environment is usually c alculated by identifying and aggregating the expenditures considered to be primarily for environment protection and resource management purposes. These expenditures can be found by examining official government finance statistics found in government budget s and/or administrative reports on actual government expenditure incurred. The main institutional partners are the official institutions in charge of reporting government expenditure. National accounts and government finance statistics are typically the di visions in statistical offices which need to be involved when developing these figures. Due to the new constitutional status of the Netherlands Antilles/Curaao as per October 2010, no information is available for that year. Table 26: Government protecti on expenditures In ANG 1000 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Selikor subsidy 29380 29267 29493 32949 32030 sewerage and water purification 40 pm pm pm pm Carmabi subsidy 359 306 315 291 291 Schoon Curaao subsidy 75 Punda L impi i Bunita subsidy 26 Parke Tropikal subsidy 250 250 453 438 513 Protection expenditures (total): n.a. 30029 29823 30261 33678 32935 Source: Ministry of Finance and CBS
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 57 7. Tourism Tourism is one of the most important activi ties in many of the Caribbean countries, contributing significantly to the economies. Tourism industries also contribute through the creation of jobs in tourist related sectors such as security, construction and transportation. However, this key sector als o exerts significant pressure on scarce resources such as land, reefs, water and energy. In addition, it also generates a large amount of waste. The indicators under this theme seek to measure and quantify the environmental and social implications such as accommodation, transportation and employment. Tourism, like all forms of development in the coastal zone, needs to be carefully integrated within the environmental development plans. Curaao is a partially tourism dependent country, which means that sustai nable tourism development should be continuously improved. Environmentally responsible practices by tourism companies are still limited (National Report of Curaao, June 2104). The key drivers are local environmental NGOs that stimulate voluntary environme ntal initiatives. Uncontrolled and illegal development of construction and tourism projects and rapid expansion may frustrate and alienate locals due to traffic congestion and restrictive access to private facilities (TAC, May 2013). photo : C. Jager
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 58 Table 27: Visitor and Cruise ship arrivals 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Ships 220 246 226 293 291 255 Passengers 383589 400596 436068 583994 629145 565.124 Source: Curaao Tourist Board A visitor is a traveler ta king a trip to a main destination outside his/her usual environment for less than a year, for any main purpose (business, leisure or other personal purpose) other than to be employed by a resident entity in the country or place visited 22 These trips taken by visitors qualify as tourism trips. Tourism refers to the activity of visitors. A visitor (domestic, inbound or outbound) is classified as a tourist (or overnight visitor) if his/her trip includes an overnight stay, or as a same day visitor (or excursio nist) otherwise. Cruise passengers are regarded as a special type of same day visitor (even if the ship overnights at the port) who stay less than twenty four hours in the country visited. Cruise ship arrivals refer to the number of times cruise ships ente r the country. A cruise ship can be counted multiple times if it leaves the country and then returns with new passengers within the same month. Table 28: Stay over tourism 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Total numbers: 341.651 390.282 419. 810 440.063 452.042 468.442 Nights: 2888.443 3184.932 3674.700 3754.311 3984.212 3848.351 Source: CBS Table 29: Tourism ratios 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Tourist Penetration Ratio 5.4 5.8 6.7 6.7 7.0 6.7 Tourism Den sity Ratio 17.8 19.7 22.7 23.2 24.6 23.7 Tourism Intensity Rate 5.2 6.5 7.0 7.2 7.2 6.7 Source: CBS 22 Definitions of Caricom International Recommendations for Tourism Statistics 2008
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 59 Tourist Penetration Ratio: The penetration ratio quantifies the average number of tourists per thousand inhabitants. Tourist Penetration R atio = average length of stay x number of visitors / 365 x midyear population estimates. Tourism Density Ratio: This ratio attempts to show the density of tourists in the country at any one time on average. Its value is limited by the fact that tourist fl ows are seasonal and tourism activity tends to be concentrated in specific geographic areas (tourist zones). Tourism Density Ratio = average length of stay x number of visitors / 365 x area in square kilometers. Tourism Intensity Rate (TIR) measures the l and population size. It serves to show countries with particularly high tourism concentration, and consequently potential impact both for the economy as well as the socio cultural and natural envir onment. Tourism Intensity Rate = number of visitors/1,000 population/km 2 Table 30: Hotels: rooms and occupancy 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Number of rooms: 5421 5776 6038 6180 6405 6490 Occupancy % 71.7 76.2 70.4 67.3 70.0 71.1 Sources: Curaao Tourist Board and CBS The room occupancy rate is, according to the Caribbean Tourism Organization (CTO), a measure of capacity utilization for hotels and similar establishments. It is calculated by dividing the monthly or yearly sum of occupied rooms by the number of rooms available for use, then multiplying the quotient by 100. Table 31: Passengers by air 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Arriving: 635,495 705,093 731,070 732,865 733,887 764,293 Departing: 631,410 684,307 708,997 728,461 730,549 763,087 Transit: 147,165 239,706 317,101 260,175 210,042 204,909 Total: 1414,070 1629,106 1757,168 1721,501 1674,478 1732,289 Source: Curaao Airport Partners N.V.
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 60 Appendix Air quality: Beth Chaim (ind ustrial area) Table 10: Monthly average concentration in g/m 3 month SO 2 times x 20 g Total SP 2/1/2010 53.8 2.7 3/1/2010 5.2 0.3 70.2 4/1/2010 1.9 0.1 76.4 5/1/2010 1.4 0.1 47.6 6/1/2010 44.6 2.2 50.6 7/1/2010 68.3 3.4 48.4 8/1/2010 43.7 2.2 35.6 9/1/2010 31.8 1.6 30.4 10/1/2010 24.6 1.2 30.7 11/1/2010 15.2 0.8 26.9 12/1/2010 37.9 1.9 28.6 1/1/2011 90.6 4.5 45.9 2/1/2011 89.0 4.5 47.0 3/1/2011 50.0 2.5 40.5 4/1/2011 73.3 3.7 46.0 5/1/2011 53.1 2.7 49.0 6/1/2011 49.8 2.5 49.2 7/ 1/2011 57.7 2.9 43.1 8/1/2011 95.6 4.8 52.3 9/1/2011 79.9 4.0 60.6 10/1/2011 58.8 2.9 50.1 11/1/2011 30.9 1.5 41.9 12/1/2011 27.7 1.4 29.2 1/1/2012 44.2 2.2 32.5 2/1/2012 94.4 4.7 39.0 3/1/2012 109.9 5.5 67.0 4/1/2012 144.6 7.2 44.9 5/1/2012 80.9 4.0 62.8 6/1/2012 57.3 2.9 69.4 7/1/2012 56.7 2.8 58.5 8/1/2012 48.4 2.4 47.5
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 61 9/1/2012 61.7 3.1 45.7 10/1/2012 37.9 1.9 30.6 11/1/2012 14.0 0.7 33.2 12/1/2012 12.8 0.6 33.8 1/1/2013 124.9 6.2 39.6 2/1/2013 165.9 8.3 50.1 3/1/2013 88.9 4.4 43.8 4/1/2013 185.8 9.3 55.1 5/1/2013 152.9 7.6 56.8 6/1/2013 196.0 9.8 69.7 7/1/2013 151.0 7.5 44.6 8/1/2013 241.1 12.1 51.3 9/1/2013 166.7 8.3 45.0 10/1/2013 170.0 8.5 55.4 11/1/2013 103.1 5.2 36.9 12/1/2013 122.2 6.1 36.8 1/1/2014 178.1 8.9 46.7 2/ 1/2014 130.2 6.5 52.0 3/1/2014 158.6 7.9 56.9 4/1/2014 258.2 12.9 72.1 5/1/2014 251.7 12.6 73.3 6/1/2014 190.3 9.5 83.0 7/1/2014 206.6 10.3 61.5 8/1/2014 159.5 8.0 54.3 9/1/2014 129.4 6.5 49.1 10/1/2014 98.6 4.9 39.0 11/1/2014 118.7 5.9 37.4 12/1 /2014 153.7 7.7 43.2 1/1/2015 163.2 8.2 45.1 2/1/2015 158.2 7.9 50.1 3/1/2015 144.7 7.2 58.7 4/1/2015 261.6 13.1 88.3 5/1/2015 273.4 13.7 104.3 6/1/2015 319.5 16.0 79.6 7/1/2015 258.6 12.9 82.3 8/1/2015 284.5 14.2 72.6 9/1/2015 233.1 11.7 57.1 10 /1/2015 113.2 5.7 41.5 11/1/2015 178.7 8.9 46.1 12/1/2015 312.5 15.6 63.4
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 62 Source: Monitoring station Public Health Service A'dam SO 2 = sulfur dioxide, Air Quality Guideline 24 hour WHO is 20 g/m 3 Incl. emissions of DOK utility power plants # x 20 = times above 24 hour WHO norm of 20 g/m 3 Total SP = TSP = Total suspended particles Air quality: Kas Chikitu (residential area) Table 11: Monthly average concentration in g/m 3 mont h SO 2 times 20 g PM10 times 50 g 6/1/2010 24.0 1.2 49.2 1.0 7/1/2010 49.0 2.5 44.3 0.9 8/1/2010 39.8 2.0 37.8 0.8 9/1/2010 31.5 1.6 39.9 0.8 10/1/2010 19.5 1.0 34.5 0.7 11/1/2010 16.0 0.8 36.0 0.7 12/1/2010 32.7 1.6 36.5 0.7 1/1/2011 69.3 3.5 33.8 0.7 2/1/2011 83.6 4.2 35.0 0.7 3/1/2011 43.8 2.2 35.0 0.7 4/1/2011 65.5 3.3 34.1 0.7 5/1/2011 40.1 2.0 45.6 0.9 6/1/2011 50.8 2.5 39.9 0.8 7/1/2011 41.0 2.0 39.2 0.8 8/1/2011 52.0 2.6 36.9 0.7 9/1/2011 45.4 2.3 33.6 0.7 10/1/201 1 38.2 1.9 35.8 0.7 11/1/2011 22.4 1.1 38.3 0.8 12/1/2011 21.9 1.1 32.4 0.6 1/1/2012 44.8 2.2 30.6 0.6 2/1/2012 70.5 3.5 34.4 0.7 3/1/2012 114.1 5.7 55.5 1.1 4/1/2012 45.2 2.3 32.7 0.7 5/1/2012 81.0 4.0 49.1 1.0 6/1/2012 28.5 1.4 49.6 1.0 7/1/2012 54.7 2.7 48.9 1.0
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 63 8/1/2012 32.6 1.6 36.8 0.7 9/1/2012 40.0 2.0 34.3 0.7 10/1/2012 27.3 1.4 35.2 0.7 11/1/2012 64.9 3.2 30.0 0.6 12/1/2012 52.8 2.6 39.1 0.8 1/1/2013 123.7 6.2 32.9 0.7 2/1/2013 95.0 4.8 35.7 0.7 3/1/2013 83.2 4.2 3 7.8 0.8 4/1/2013 136.9 6.8 40.9 0.8 5/1/2013 75.7 3.8 45.2 0.9 6/1/2013 85.7 4.3 54.6 1.1 7/1/2013 93.0 4.6 51.1 1.0 8/1/2013 89.7 4.5 42.4 0.8 9/1/2013 58.6 2.9 41.2 0.8 10/1/2013 88.3 4.4 39.8 0.8 11/1/2013 99.8 5.0 39.4 0.8 12/1/2013 1 22.4 6.1 34.5 0.7 1/1/2014 146.3 7.3 35.0 0.7 2/1/2014 153.2 7.7 39.9 0.8 3/1/2014 113.4 5.7 39.2 0.8 4/1/2014 169.1 8.5 46.2 0.9 5/1/2014 141.3 7.1 43.2 0.9 6/1/2014 135.0 6.8 60.0 1.2 7/1/2014 107.3 5.4 39.1 0.8 8/1/2014 85.6 4.3 39.2 0.8 9/1/2014 96.2 4.8 30.9 0.6 10/1/2014 71.1 3.6 26.0 0.5 11/1/2014 105.6 5.3 26.8 0.5 12/1/2014 145.1 7.3 30.3 0.6 1/1/2015 160.5 8.0 34.3 0.7 2/1/2015 123.8 6.2 31.4 0.6 3/1/2015 151.9 7.6 38.3 0.8 4/1/2015 172.1 8.6 55.8 1.1 5/1/2015 154 .04 7.7 64.5 1.3 6/1/2015 170.76 8.5 48.1 1.0 7/1/2015 142.18 7.1 54.1 1.1 8/1/2015 106.51 5.3 40.9 0.8 9/1/2015 82.61 4.1 43.8 0.9 10/1/2015 33.1 1.7 35.2 0.7 11/1/2015 61.03 3.1 34.9 0.7 12/1/2015 113.71 5.7 37.2 0.7
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 64 Source: Monitoring station Public Health Service A'dam SO 2 = sulfur dioxide, Air Quality Guideline 24 hour WHO is 20 g/m 3 # x 20 = times above 24 hours WHO norm of 20 g/m 3 PM 10 micrometer (m) # x 50g = times above 24 hour WHO day norm of 50 g/m 3
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 65 Bibliography R.P.M. Bak, G. Nieuwland (1995), Long term change in coral communities along depth gradients over Leeward reefs in the Netherlands Antilles. Bulletin of Marine Science. C.E. Beers, J. de Freit as, P. Ketner (1997), Landscape ecological vegetation map of the island of Curaao, Netherlands Antilles. Caribbean Consulting Engineers / DHV Consulting Engineers, (December 1989). A Study on Long Term Energy Planning for the Island of Curaao. Caricom, ( 2015). Report of the Caricom Workshop on Environment Statistics. Caricom, (2013), The Caricom Environment in Figures 2009. Department of Statistics, Government of Bermuda, (November 2013). Environmental Statistics Compendium. Dutch Caribbean Nature Allianc e, DCNA (July 2013). Flora of Aruba, Bonaire and Curaao. G.J. Gast (1998), Microbial densities and dynamics in fringing coral reef waters PhD thesis, University of Amsterdam. Drs. M.W.R. Michiel Karskens, (September 2006). Energieconsument op Cura ao: Van geshockt en uitgeblust naar bewust en toegerust. Een (energie ) regulator als randvoorwaarde voor een betaalbare, betrouwbare en duurzame energievoorziening. Ministry of General Affairs (May 2013). Strategies for Sustainable Long Term Economic Deve lopment in Curaao. TAC report. Ministry of Health, Environment and Nature in collaboration with the Office of Foreign Relations and others (June, 2014). National Report of Curaao for the Third International Conference on Small Island Developing States, Samoa, September 2014. Ole Raaschou Nielsen, et al (July 10, 2013). Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts: prospective analyses from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) The Lancet Oncology 14 Particulate matter air pollution contributes to lung cancer incidence in Europe. United Nations, (2011), World Statistics pocketbook 2010.
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 66 United Nations Stati stical Division, (2013). Framework for the Development of Environment Statistics (FDES), Final Draft. United Nations, (2014 2015), Envstats, News and notes. Irregular publication of the UNSD, Environment Statistics Section on topics related to environment, news and events. University of Amsterdam. World Health Organization, (2005). WHO Air Guidelines for particular matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxi de.
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 67 List of Acronyms Caricom Caribbean Community CaCO 3 Carmabi Caribbean Research and Management of Biodiversity CBS Central Bureau of Statistics CH 4 Methane CIC Caribbean Incineration Com pany CO 2 Carbon dioxide CRC Curaao Recycling Company CRED Center for Research on the Epidemiology of Disaster CRU Curacao Refinery Utilities CTO Caribbean Tourism Organization DNA D eoxyribonucleic Acid FDES Framework for the Development for Environment Statistics GGD Geneeskundige en Gezondheidsdienst GHGs Greenhouse Gasses IFO Industrial Fuel Oil IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ISO International Organization for Standardization Kton 1000 tons kWh kilowatt h our MW Megawatt MDG Millennium Development Goal
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 68 NGO Non Governmental Organization NOx Nitrogen Oxide PM10 Particulate matter ; 10 micrometers or less PO 4 Phosphate SIDS Small Island Developing States SEEA System of Environmental Economic Accounting SNA System of National Accounts SO2 Sulphur Dioxide TAC Thierry Apoteker Consulting TIR Tourism Intensity Rate TSP Total Suspended Particulates UNEP United Nations Environment Programme UNSD United Nations Statistical Department WHO World Health Organization WMO World Meteorological Organization
Curaao Environmental Statistics Co mpendium 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao, January 2017 69 Contributors Aqualectra Caricom Carmabi CBS Coll CRU / BOO Curaao Airport Partners Curaao Tourism Board Curaao Mining Company Curoil / Curgas GGD Curaao GGD Amsterdam Kool Caribe Consult Meteorological Department NuCapital Refineria ISLA Selikor UNSD