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Supply Side of the Labour Market Curaçao : Labour Force Survey 2017

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Supply Side of the Labour Market Curaçao : Labour Force Survey 2017

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ako
arbeidskrachtenonderzoek
unemployment
employment
labour
werkenden
werkloosheid
werkgelegenheid
werkgelegenheid

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Central Bureau of Statistics Curaçao
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Central Bureau of Statistics Curaçao
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Willemstad, mei 2018

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Supply side of the labour market Curaao 2017 Central Bureau of Statistics Cura 2 Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek Curaao Address: WTC Building, Piscadera Bay z/n (first floor Phone: (+599 9) 8392300 Email: info@cbs.cw Website: www.cbs.cw Website: digitallibrary.cbs.cw Facebook: cbscur Copyright Willemstad, Central Bureau of Statistics, 2018 The contents of this p ublication may be quoted, provided that the source is mentioned accurately and clearly ISBN: 978 99904 5 131 3

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Supply side of the labour market Curaao 2017 Central Bureau of Statistics Cura 3 Preface The Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) has been conducting the Labour Force Survey annually for the last thirty years. The Labour Force Survey provides statistical data on the supply side of the labour market, which is used in labour policies, national eco nomy statistics and social research. Recording and analyzing changes in the labour market should be used as an indicator on the influence on the economy. Macro economic models use the data as an input to show how all indicators are inter related. These re lationships can thus be looked at to highlight areas where interventions can be used to improve current situations. This publication shows the result of the Labour Force Survey conducted in September October 2017. The results are compared to the results f rom the LFS 2014 to 2016. One will see that the results are a direct reflection of the current economic situation on Curacao and the fragile state of the labour market. CBS hopes that the results can be used by all to further improve our island. Used in comb ination with the national macro economic model, it sheds light to all the influences and consequences of movements on the labour market. A sincere word of thanks goes to the population of Curaao for their continuous support and cooperation of the LFS. Furthermore, to fieldwork and statistical staff of CBS. The director Drs. Sean de Boer

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Supply side of the labour market Curaao 2017 Central Bureau of Statistics Cura 4 Contents Preface ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 7 Resmen ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 8 Samenvatting ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 9 1. Objective of the Labour Force Survey (LFS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 10 2. Survey set up ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 12 2.1 Study design and study population ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 12 2.2 Definitions ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 13 2.3 Questionnaire ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 16 2.4 Data collection and data management ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 17 3. Labour Results ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 19 3.1 Labour Force ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 19 Labour force of Curaao 2014 2017 ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 19 Table 2 Labour Force 2014 2017 Male ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 21 Table 3 Labour Force 2014 2017 Female ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 22 Table 4 Labour Force 2014 2017 Age 15 24 ................................ ................................ ................................ 23 Table 5 Labour force 2014 2014 Age 25 34 ................................ ................................ ................................ 24 Table 6 Labour Force 2014 2017 Age 35 44 ................................ ................................ ................................ 25 Table 7 Labour Force 2014 2017 Age 45 54 ................................ ................................ ................................ 25 Table 8 Labour Force 2014 2017 Age 55 64 ................................ ................................ ................................ 26 Table 9 Labour Force 2014 2014 Age 65+ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 27 3.2 Employed population ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 27 Table 10 Employment Rate 201 2017 by gender ................................ ................................ ......................... 28 3.2.1 Economic position ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 29 Table 11 Economic Position 2014 2017 ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 29 Table 12 Economic Position 2014 2017 Male ................................ ................................ .............................. 30 Table 13 Economic Position 2014 2017 Female ................................ ................................ ........................... 30 3.2.2 O ccupation ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 31 Table 14 Occupation of employed population by gender 2014 2017 ................................ .......................... 32 3.2.3 Sectors ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 32 Table 15 Economic activity 2014 2017 ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 32 3.2.4 Underemployment ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 33 Table 16 Total hours worked by gender 2014 2017 ................................ ................................ ................. 33 3.2.5 Highest Education ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 34

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Supply side of the labour market Curaao 2017 Central Bureau of Statistics Cura 5 Table 17 Highest education 2014 2017 by sex ................................ ................................ ............................. 34 3.3 Unemp loyed Population ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 34 3.3.1 Reasons and time looking for work unemployed ................................ ............................... 35 Table 19 Time looking for work by sex 2014 2017 ................................ ................................ ....................... 36 3.3.2 Ways looking for work ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 36 Table 20 Methods looking for work by gender 2014 2017 ................................ ................................ .......... 37 3.3.3 Sector looking for work ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 37 Table 21 Se ctors looking for work by gender 2017 ................................ ................................ ...................... 38 3.4 Economically Inactive Population ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 39 3.4.1 Reasons not looking for work ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 40 Table 22 Reasons for looking for work by gender 2014 2017 ................................ ................................ ...... 41 4. Income Results ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 42 4.1 Main income ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 42 Table 23 Gross monthly income by gender 2017 ................................ ................................ ......................... 42 Table 24 Average monthly income by main source of income 2017 ................................ ........................... 42 Table 25 Income Source 2018 by gender ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 44 4.2 Second source of income ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 44 Table 26 Main and second source of income ................................ ................................ ............................... 44 5. References ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 45 6. Classifications in the LFS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 47 6.1 Education ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 47 6.2 Industry (sector) ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 47 6.3 Occupation ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 48 List of Figures and Tables Figures Figure 1 Schematic overview of labour market ................................ ................................ ................................ 15 Figure 2 Labour Force and total population mutations 2014 2017 ................................ ................................ 20 Figure 3 Participation Rate by Age 2014 2017 ................................ ................................ ................................ 27 Figure 4 Employed Population 1992 2017 ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 28 Figure 5 Unemployment Rate 1992 2017 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 35 Figure 6 Industries startup 2017 ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 39 Figure 7 Reasons economically inactive 2014 2017 ................................ ................................ ........................ 40

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Supply side of the labour market Curaao 2017 Central Bureau of Statistics Cura 6 Figure 8 Average monthly income differences ................................ ................................ ................................ 43 Tables Table 1 Labour Force 2014 2017 ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 19 Table 2 Labour Force 2014 2017 Male ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 21 Table 3 Labour Force 2014 2017 Female ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 22 Table 4 Labour Force 2014 2017 Age 15 24 ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 23 Table 5 Labour force 2014 2014 Age 25 34 ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 24 Table 6 Labour Force 2014 2017 Age 35 44 ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 25 Table 7 Labour Force 2014 2017 Age 45 54 ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 25 Table 8 Labour Force 2014 2017 Age 55 64 ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 26 Table 9 Labour Force 2014 2014 Age 65+ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 27 Table 10 Employment Rate 201 2017 by gender ................................ ................................ ............................. 28 Table 11 Economic Position 2014 2017 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 29 Table 12 Economic Position 2014 2017 Male ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 30 Table 13 Economic Position 2014 2017 Female ................................ ................................ ............................... 30 Table 14 Occupation of employed population by gender 2014 2017 ................................ .............................. 32 Table 15 Economic activity 2014 2017 ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 32 Table 16 Total hours worked by gender 2014 2017 ................................ ................................ ........................ 33 Table 17 Highest education 2014 2017 by sex ................................ ................................ ................................ 34 Table 18 Reason unemployed 2015 2017 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 36 Table 19 Time looking for work by sex 2014 2017 ................................ ................................ ........................... 36 Table 20 Methods looking for work by gender 2014 2017 ................................ ................................ .............. 37 Table 21 Sectors looking for work by gender 2017 ................................ ................................ .......................... 38 Table 22 Reasons for looking for work by gender 2014 2017 ................................ ................................ .......... 41 Table 23 Gross monthly income by gender 2017 ................................ ................................ ............................. 42 Table 24 Average monthly income by main source of income 2017 ................................ ............................... 42 Table 25 Income Source 2018 by gender ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 44 Table 26 Main and second source of income ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 44

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Supply side of the labour market Curaao 2017 Central Bureau of Statistics Cura 7 Preface The last couple of years have seen major changes in the labour market. With closing of hotels and downsizing of major companies, the labour market has gone through dramatic changes. These changes have manifested themselves in an increased unemployment rate The unemployment rate has increased in 2017 to 14.1%, which is 0.8% change from 13.3% in 2016. The group that has been affected the most are th e 35 4 4 year olds. The unemployment under this group has increased with 4.4 percentage points. Due to the h igh economic need, people tend to find more creative ways to make ends meet. This can be noted in the increase in self employed people and decrease in casual workers. Youth unemployment has improved. However, this group of 15 24 year olds are the most sus ceptible to the influences of the labour market. A welcoming labour market, with low unemployment and a good demand for labour entices the youth to enter the labour market. When the labour market is tougher with high unemployment, the youth is more incline d or forced into furthering their studies or becoming economically inactive. Major changes in in unemployment have direct effect on other aspects of the economy. An increase in unemployment population causes a decrease in household disposable income. When a household has less disposable income, they will make less investments. House repairs and personal items will be purchased less. This means that government will collect less taxes. As taxes are a governments major income, the debt crisis will increase an d the need for more tax revenue will increase. More unemployed population also means that there will be more request for welfare benefits and thus an increase of government expenses. With less income in the government coffers and a higher demand for govern ment benefits, the economy will find itself in a cycle that is not easily broken. The director Drs. Sean de Boer

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Supply side of the labour market Curaao 2017 Central Bureau of Statistics Cura 8 Resmen Algun kambio grandi a tuma lug den nos merkado laboral durante eltimoanan. Seramentu di hotl i redukshon di personal serka algun kompania grandi a trese kambio dramtiko pa merkado. Por mira efekto di e kambionan ak den e oumento di e porsentahe di desempleo te 14,1% na 2017, loke ta represent un kambio di 0,8% kompar ku e nivel di 13,3% kaminda e tabata na 2016. E grupo di edat mas afekt ta esun di 35 44 aa. Serka e grupo ak, desempleo a subi ku 4,4 punto porsentual. Nesesidat ekoniko fu erte ta pone hende buska manera mas kreativo pa kubri nan gastunan. Por riparesaki den e oumento di e kantidat di persona ku ta traha riba nan mes i e bahada di e kantidat ku ta lora man ku trabou informal. E nivel di empleo bou di hen a mehor. Sinem bargo, e grupo di 15 24 aa ta esun mas vulnerabel pa influensia di merkado laboral. Ora merkado laboral ta faborabel, ku poko desempleo i bon demanda pa trabou, esei ta atrae hbennan pa drenta merkado laboral. Ora merkado laboral ta mos faborabel, ku desempleo haltu, e hennan ta mas inklin f asta fs pa sea sigui studia f bira inaktivo ekonikamente. Ora desempleo kambia drikamente, esei tin un efekto direkto riba otro aspekto di ekonomia. Ora e kantidat di persona desemple oument, esei ta pone ku e entrada disponibel di e kasnan di famia ta bira mos. Un kas di famia ku tin mos entrada disponibel ta hasi mos invershon, nan ta saka mnos sn na reparashon di kas i ta kumpra mos artkulo personal. Esei ta nifik ku gobirnu lo kobra mnos impuesto. Komo ku impuesto ta e fuente di entrada prinsipal di gobirnu, esei lo empeor krs di debe i pone gobirnu su nesesidat di entrada di impuesto oument. Tambe, mas desempleo ta nifik mas demanda pa benefisio sosial (manera nderstant loke na su turno ta pone gastu di gobinu subi mas. Ku mos entrada den kaha di gobinu i mas demanda pa benefisio di gobinu, ekonomia ta kai den un srkulo visioso difl pa sali af.

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Supply side of the labour market Curaao 2017 Central Bureau of Statistics Cura 9 Samenvatting De laatste jaren hebben zich grote veranderin gen op de arbeidsmarkt voorgedaan. Het sluiten van hotels en de inkrimping van grote bedrijven heeft voor de werkgelegenheid dramatische gevolgen. Deze gevolgen hebben zich gemanifesteerd in een toegenomen werkloosheidscijfer. Het werkloosheidspercentage i s in 2017 toegenomen tot 14,1%, een toename van 0,8% ten opzichte van 2016 (13,3%. De groep die het meest getroffen is, is de groep van 35 44 jarigen. De werkloosheid onder deze groep is gestegen met 4,4 %. Vanwege de krapte op de arbeidsmarkt vertonen veel mensen creatievere manieren om rond te komen. Dit is te merken aan de toename van het aantal zelfstandigen en de afname van werknemers in tijdelijke dienst De jeugdwerkloosheid is gedaald. Deze groep van 15 24 jarigen is echter het meest vatbaar voo r invloeden op de arbeidsmarkt. Een verwelkomende arbeidsmarkt, met lage werkloosheid en een hoge vraag naar arbeid, stimuleert de jeugd om toe te treden tot de arbeidsmarkt. Bij hoge werkloosheid, is de jeugd meer geneigd om te blijven studeren of gedwong en om economisch inactief te worden. Grote veranderingen op de arbeidsmarkt hebben directe gevolgen voor andere aspecten van de economie. Een toename van de werkloosheid leidt tot een daling van het beschikbaar inkomen van de getroffen huishoudens. Wanneer een huishouden minder besteedbaar inkomen heeft, zullen ze artikelen worden minder gekocht. Dit betekent dat de overheid minder belastingen zal innen. Omdat belastingen de belangrijkste inkomstenbron van de overheid zijn, zullen de schulden toenemen en zal de behoefte aan meer belastinginkomsten toenemen. Een groter aantal werklozen betekent ook dat er meer mensen afhankelijk zullen zijn van onderstandsuitker ingen, wat weer een stijging van de overheidsuitgaven met zich mee brengt. Met minder inkomsten in de schatkist van de overheid en een hogere vraag naar overheidsbaten, zal de economie zich in een neerwaartse spiraal bevinden die niet makkelijk te doorbre ken is.

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Supply side of the labour market Curaao 2017 Central Bureau of Statistics Cura 10 1. Objective of the Labour Force Survey (LFS A labour market is the structure that allocates labour to its most productive use and functions through the interaction of those who supply labour services (workers) and those who demand labour services (employers). Statistics on the labour market are cri tical to understand the market whether one applies the microeconomic (economics at an individual, group or company level) or macroeconomic national economy) approach. Labour statistics, also known as labour market information, involves the systematic coll ection and analysis of data that describes the demand and supply of labour. Without labour market information, it is impossible for a country to understand the dynamics of its labour market. Since 1987, the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) of Curaao, f ormerly the CBS of the Netherlands Antilles has been conducting Labour Force Surveys (LFS, in Dutch: Arbeidskrachtenonderzoek, AKO) annually in the months September October to monitor the most important developments on the supply side of the labour market in Curaao (Lake, 2013). This report is based on the data from the LFS held in the months September October 2017 (LFS 2017 2). accordance with the Key Indicators of the Labour Market KILM) recommended by the International Labour Organization (ILO and are therefore internationally comparable. ILO databases (ILO, 2017). Information provided by the LFS makes it possible to produce statistics on the economically active population, also known as the labour force. The economically active population includes both the employed and unemployed population. From an economic point of view, one of the main objectives of collecting data on the economically active population is to provide basic information on the size and structure of a countr labour force. Data collected at different points in time provide a basis for monitoring current trends and changes in the (un)employment situation. In addition to the economically ac tive and unemployed population, the LFS also provides statistics on the economically not active population such as students and pensioners. One of the most important labour market indicators is the unemployment rate. The unemployment rate reflects the perc entage of the labour force that does not have a job, but is actively looking for one and is available to start working within two weeks The unemployment rate is widely used, in particular as an overall indicator of the current

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Supply side of the labour market Curaao 2017 Central Bureau of Statistics Cura 11 conomy (Hussmanns, 2007). Other important indicators are the labour force participation rate, the employment to population ratio, and the level of education and occupation of the employed population. The unemployment rate in 2017 has increased to 14.1 perc ent from 13.3 percent in 2016. The group that has been more affected are those aged 25 34. The labour force participation rate is the percentage of the population that actively engages in the labour market, by either working or looking for work, while the employment to age population that is employed. All the aforementioned indicators, together with others described in this report, give a general overview of the supply side of the labour market in Curaao.

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Supply side of the labour market Curaao 2017 Central Bureau of Statistics Cura 12 2. Survey set up 2.1 Study design and study population The LFS is a sample survey conducted among households in Curaao. For determining an appropriate sample size, research on the sample estimates and variances were made. This was done by taking into account the last availab le LFS unemployment rate, a 1.5 percent one sided margin of error, and a non response rate of 20.0 percent The samp ling frame for the LFS was taken from the population registry database of the Registry private addresses. The sample was selected using a simple random sampling design without replacement. By using th is procedure, each household in the registry had a known and equal chance of participating in the survey. A total of N = 2,628 households were selected to participate in the LFS 2017 2, which is approximately 5 percent of all households in Curaao. Natio nal media including newspaper, radio, and television) and social platforms were used to inform the community of the upcoming survey. Furthermore, to ensure that the selected households would be fully informed, a letter was sent to them containing backgrou nd information of the survey and request for cooperation and participation. Due to a high non response, 100 additional addresses were selected during the fieldwork. There are different reasons an address can be considered as a non response. These reasons fall into two categories; non household and incommunicable addresses. A n on household non response is an address which is not considered a household because they are either a businesses or uninhabited. An incommunicable non response is household who have r efused to participate or where the household could not be contacted. The top three reasons in the 2017 LFS for a non response were no contact (10.6%), refusal (9.6%), and unfindable (6.2%). The target group of the LFS included non institutionalized men an d women residing for three months or more in Curaao or planning to stay for three months or longer on the island. By defining the target population in this manner, tourists and persons with short stays (e.g. attending short term training activities), who do not contribute to the labour market, were not included. The LFS makes statements about the population aged 15 years and older (also known as the working population).

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Supply side of the labour market Curaao 2017 Central Bureau of Statistics Cura 13 2.2 Definitions The definitions used in the LFS are based on the KILM and the local labour market situation. Accordingly, individuals 15 years and older were classified in one of the three categories of the labour market (labour status): employed, unemployed, or economically not active. The definitions are given in this paragraph. Employe d All persons of 15 years and older who during the research period: a. had a job or have their own business; or b. who during the week preceding the research period performed any work for pay in cash or in kind, for 4 hours or more. Unemployed All persons of 15 years and older who during the research period: a. did not have a job or a business of their own; and b. had actively been seeking work in the preceding month of the research period; and c. who were available to start working or start a busin ess within two weeks. Economically not active All persons of 15 years and older who during the research period: a. did not have a job or own a business; and b. who were not actively seeking work. Labour force The total number of persons who are employed added to the total number of persons who are unemployed. Unemployment rate The number of unemployed persons as a percentage of the labour force.

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Supply side of the labour market Curaao 2017 Central Bureau of Statistics Cura 14 Youth unemployment rate The unemployment rate in the age category of 15 24 years. Participation rate The num ber of persons in the labour force as a percentage of the total population. Labour Force participation rate The number of persons in the labour force as a percentage of the working age population. Underemployment The percentage of employed people who are employed and are seeking or are available for additional work during the reference period Figure 1 gives a schematic overview of the three labour statuses employed, unemployed and economically not active) and th e route to be classified into one of them.

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Supply side of the labour market Curaao 2017 Central Bureau of Statistics Cura 15 Figure 1 Schematic overview of labour market

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Supply side of the labour market Curaao 2017 Central Bureau of Statistics Cura 16 2. 3 Questionnaire A standardized questionnaire, mostly with multiple answer options, is used to collect the data during the LFS. The questionnaire used in 201 7 was similar to the questionnaire used in 201 6 except there were additional questions only asked of the reference person in the household. These questions will be used to calculate the Multi Dimensional P overty Index (MPI) for the island. The questionnaire is available in the four languages: Papiamentu, Dutch, English and Spanish. Since the LFS is an anonymous survey, no personal identifiers were asked on the questionnaire, this in order to maintain the anonymity of the respondents The subjects included in the questionnaires are: 1. Demographics a. Age b. Gender c. Country of Birth d. Nationality e. Disability 2. Education a. Education trajectory b. Highest education attained 3. Labour market a. History of work in the past 12months b. Current job or own company/busin ess 4. Persons with work a. Economic position in current work b. Economic activity of company/business c. Occupation in current work d. Average working hours per week 5. Persons looking for work a. Amount of time looking for work b. Reason for looking for work c. Methods of looking for work d. Reasons why it is difficult to find work e. Desired type of work f. Desired working hours per week g. Willingness to accept other type of work

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Supply side of the labour market Curaao 2017 Central Bureau of Statistics Cura 17 6. Economically not active persons a. Reasons for not working or looking for a job 7. Income a. Amount of highest income last month b. Source of highest income c. Amount of second highest income last month d. Source of second highest income 8. History a. Economic position on labour market six months before survey b. Economic position on labour market one year before survey 9. Lifestyle questions a. Fac ilities b. House composition c. Availability of water and electricity 2. 4 Data collection and data management The Fieldwork department carried out the fieldwork for the study. Data collection for the LFS 2017 2 took place in the period of September 2 October 11. As in previous years, Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI) was used to collect the data. CAPI refers to survey data collection by a survey administrator (interviewer) using a computer (tablet) to administer the questionnaire to the respondents and to capture the answers (Baker, Bradburn, & Johnson, 1995). A total of 40 experienced interviewers wer e trained in the methodology of the study and the use of tablets, to assure consistency in the data collection. Within the selected households, basic demographic information was collected on all household members, while labour force information was collec ted for household members aged 15 years and older. Lifestyle questions were then asked from the reference person. A reference person is the person identified as the person able to speak on behalf of the household. The use of tablets eliminates a lot of i nterviewer errors such as questions routing or omission of questions. It also allows for in field editing where interviewers were guided into following a certain path or from choosing answers inconsistent to previous replies

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Supply side of the labour market Curaao 2017 Central Bureau of Statistics Cura 18 As part of quality assurance, field and telephone checks we re performed. As the fieldwork started, samples were pulled out of the response and non response addresses. This resulted into 163 addresses that were checked on (non)response. During these checks, respondents are asked to verify their responses to certain key questions and the pr ofessionalism of the interviewer s. After the fieldwork period of the study, the individual datasets of the interviewers were merged into two datasets in order to start the process of data coding. A nswers regarding education, industry (sector), and occupation were coded by two trained coders using international classification systems, while taking into account local situation. The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED 1997), the I nternational Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC rev. 4), and the International Standard Classification of Occupation (ISCO 2008) were used (Appendix 1). After data coding, the two datasets were merged into a final dataset. As a movement to changing t owards a more digital process, occupation questions were asked in two different ways. First the interviewee was asked to describe their daily activities and then the interviewer was tasked with selecting their occupation using the ISCO codes. Professional coders then coded the description. This way of shadowing a question is used when one wants to compare accuracy of responses. As a sample surve y, the LFS results were weighted to present absolute figures for this population. Post stratification weighting p rocedures were applied by the methodologist using CBS population estimates based on the 2011 Census and the population registry absolute numbers for the total pop ulation must be seen as estimates that can be subject ed to sampling errors.

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Supply side of the labour market Curaao 2017 Central Bureau of Statistics Cura 19 3 Labour Results 3.1 Labour Force The labour force consists of people 15 years and over who are legally entitled to employment. Economically, the labour force are active cont ributors to the economy and help support the social benefit mechanism Labour force of Curaao 2014 2017 Abs muta tions % muta tions Abs muta tions % muta tions Abs muta tions % muta tions 2014 2015 2016 2017 2014 2015 2015 2016 2016 2017 Employed population 59,295 61,823 65,118 62,834 2,528 4.3 3,295 5.3 2,284 3.5 Unemployed population 8,555 8,198 9,953 10,313 357 4.2 1,755 21.4 360 3.6 Labour force 67,850 70,021 75,071 73,147 2,171 3.2 5,050 7.2 1,924 2.6 Economically not active population 55,871 55,670 52,268 54,870 201 0.4 3,402 6.1 2,602 5 Population 0 14 years 29,513 29,612 29,382 28,539 99 0.3 230 0.7 843 2.9 Population 15+ years 123,721 125,690 127,339 128,058 1,969 1.6 1,649 1.3 719 0.6 Total population 153,234 155,302 156,721 156,597 2,068 1.3 1,419 0.9 124 0.1 Participation rate % 44.3 45.1 47.9 46.7 0.8* 2.8* 1.2 Labour force participation rate % 54.8 55.7 59 57.1 0.9* 3.3* 1.9 Unemployment rate % 12.6 11.7 13.3 14.1 0.9* 1.6* 0.8 Employment/total population % 38.7 39.8 41.6 40.1 1.1* 1.8* 1.5 Employment/population 15+ % 47.9 49.2 51.1 49.1 1.3* 1.9* 2 Table 1 Labour Force 2014 2017 Percentage points Figure 2 shows that until 2016, t he labour force has been increasing at a higher rate than the 15 and over population. This is a positive development. However, the unemployment has also been increasing (Table 1) This thus means that even though more people are entering the l abour force, the chance of obtaining successful employment is not in equal proportion.

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Supply side of the labour market Curaao 2017 Central Bureau of Statistics Cura 20 Figure 2 Labour Force and total population mutations 2014 2017 The labour force participation rate indicates the percentage of 15 and over population who are part of the labour force. In 2017, the labour force participation rate (57.1%) decreased from 2016 (59.0%). Despite this decrease, the rate did not drop below the 2014 labour force participation rate. In 2016 and 2017, there were quite a few events that had a direct impact on the labour force. This can be seen in the c onsequential increase o f the unemployment rate since 2016. The unemployment rate increased nearly three percentage points from 11.7 percent in 2015 to 14.1 percent in 2017. This sharp increase can be mostly attributed to big lay offs in 2016 and 2017. The CBS Macro Economic Model indicates that an impact on the labour force, has an effect on each economic factor. A decrease of the labour force thus can be felt not only on t he unemployment rate, but also on domestic and national spending and the Gross Domestic Product. On a gender level (Table 2 + 3) the male labour force in 2017 (34,206) decreased relatively faster than the female labour force (38,941). The male labour for ce decreased by 4.7 percent while the female labour force decreased by 0.6 percentage points 3.2 7.2 2.6 1.6 1.3 0.6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 2015 2016 2017 Labour Force and Total Population 15+ Mutations Labour force Total population 15+

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Supply side of the labour market Curaao 2017 Central Bureau of Statistics Cura 21 T he same trend is seen with the economically inactive. The share of economically inactive males increased more than the share of female economically inactive persons. The increase on the male side is 9.8 percent as opposed to 1.9 percent for the females. Labour force of Curao 2014 2017 Male Abs. muta tions % muta tions Abs. muta tions % muta tions Abs. muta tions % muta tions 2014 2015 2016 2017 2014 2015 2015 2016 2016 2017 Employed population 28,623 29,846 31,684 29,810 1,223 4.3 1,838 6.2 1,874 5.9 Unemployed population 3,658 3,507 4,222 4,396 151 4.1 715 20.4 174 4.1 Labour force 32,281 33,353 35,906 34,206 1,072 3.3 2,553 7.7 1,700 4.7 Economically not active population 22,112 22,004 20,308 22,298 108 0.5 1,696 7.7 1,990 9.8 Population 0 14 years 15,116 15,108 14,989 14,616 8 0.05 119 0.8 373 2.5 Population 15+ years 54,393 55,357 56,215 56,504 964 1.8 858 1.5 289 0.5 Total population 69,509 70,465 71,204 71,120 956 1.4 739 1 84 0.1 Participation rate %) 46.4 47.3 50.4 48.1 0.9* 3.1* 2.3 Labour force participation rate %) 59.3 60.3 63.9 60.5 1.0* 3.6* 3.4 Unemployment rate %) 11.3 10.5 11.8 12.9 0.8* 1.3* 1.1 Employment/total population (%) 41.2 42.4 44.5 41.9 1.2* 2.1* 2.6 Employment/population 15+ %) 52.6 53.9 56.4 52.8 1.3* 2.5* 3.6 Table 2 Labour Force 2014 2017 Male On the unemployment level, whilst male unemployment has been changing less drastically between 2014 and 2016, this is not the case in 2017. The male unemployment rate is at its highest since 2014 with an increase from 11.3 percent in 2014 to 12.9 percent in 2017. The female unemployment also increased from 14.6 percent in 2016 and 15.2 percent in 2017 (Table 3). This increase is about half (0.6 percentage points) of the increase in the male unemployment of 1.1 percentage points.

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Supply side of the labour market Curaao 2017 Central Bureau of Statistics Cura 22 Labour force of Curao 2014 20 17 Female Abs. muta tions % muta tions Abs. muta tions % muta tions Abs. muta tions % muta tions 2014 2015 2016 2017 2014 2015 2015 2016 2016 2017 Employed population 30,672 31,976 33,434 33,024 1,304 4.3 1,458 4.6 410 1.2 Unemployed population 4,897 4,691 5,731 5,917 206 4.2 1,040 22.2 186 3.2 Labour force 35,569 36,667 39,165 38,941 1,098 3.1 2,498 6.8 224 0.6 Economically not active population 33,759 33,666 31,960 32,572 93 0.3 1,706 5.1 612 1.9 Population 0 14 years 14,397 14,504 14,393 13,923 107 0.7 111 0.8 470 3.3 Population 15+ years 69,328 70,333 71,125 71,554 1,005 1.4 792 1.1 429 0.6 Total population 83,725 84,837 85,518 85,477 1,112 1.3 681 0.8 41 0 Participation rate %) 42.5 43.2 45.8 45.6 0.7* 2.6* 0.2 Labour force participation rate %) 51.3 52.1 55.1 54.4 0.8* 3.0* 0.7 Unemployment rate %) 13.8 12.8 14.6 15.2 1.0* 1.8* 0.6 Employment/total population (%) 36.6 37.7 39.1 38.6 1.1* 1.4* 0.5 Employment/population 15+ %) 44.2 45.5 47 46.2 1.3* 1.5* 0.8 Table 3 Labour Force 2014 2017 Femal e Youth unemployment is an important indicator of the labour market as it indicates the gap between education and employment. The premise is that a seamless fit between education and labour happens when the two are synchronized. A cause for y outh unemploymen t can be educational skills gap lack of entrepreneurship and lifeskills education; lack of access to capital (peacechild.org 2015 Please note that students are not counted in the unemployment rate if they have not stated that they are actively looking for employment and can start within two weeks.

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Supply side of the labour market Curaao 2017 Central Bureau of Statistics Cura 23 Labour force of Curao 2014 2017 Age 15 24 Abs. muta tions % muta tions Abs. muta tions % muta tions Abs. muta tions % muta tions 2014 2015 2016 2017 2014 2015 2014 2015 2015 2016 2015 2016 2016 2017 2016 2017 Employed population 3,181 3,880 4,450 3,815 699 22 570 14.7 635 14.3 Unemployed population 1,578 1,641 2,593 1,858 63 4 952 58 735 28.3 Labour force 4,759 5,521 7,043 5,673 762 16 1,522 27.6 1,370 19.5 Economically not active population 14,290 13,698 12,171 13,093 592 4.1 1,527 11.1 922 7.6 Population 15 24 years 19,049 19,219 19,215 18,807 170 0.9 4 0.02 408 2.1 Participation rate %) 25 28.7 36.7 30.2 3.7* 8.0* 6.5 Youth unemployment rate %) 33.2 29.7 36.8 32.8 3.5* 7.1* 4 Employment / population 15 24 years (%) 16.7 20.2 23.2 20.3 3.5* 3.0* 2.9 Youth unemployment / total unemployment 2.6 2.5 2.8 2.3 0.1* 0.3* 0.5 Table 4 Labour Force 2014 2017 Age 15 24 Even though unemployment rate increased overall, the youth unemployment rate actually improved from 36.8 percent in 2016 to 32.8 percent in 2017. The absolute number of unemployed youths decreased and this combined with a slight decrease in total population 15 24 year olds, resulted in the improvement in unemployment. However, the ratio of youths who are employed has decreased with 2.9 percentage point.

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Supply side of the labour market Curaao 2017 Central Bureau of Statistics Cura 24 Labour force of Curao 2014 2017 Age 25 34 Abs. muta tions % muta tions Abs. muta tions % muta tions Abs. muta tions % muta tions 2014 2015 2016 2017 2014 2015 2014 2015 2015 2016 2015 2016 2016 2017 2016 2017 Employed population 12,166 13,082 13,298 12,894 916 7.5 216 1.7 404 3 Unemployed population 2,215 2,095 2,298 2,976 120 5.4 203 9.7 678 29.5 Labour force 14,381 15,177 15,596 15,870 796 5.5 419 2.8 274 1.8 Economically not active population 2,468 2,369 2,439 2,464 99 4 70 3 25 1 Population 25 34 years 16,849 17,546 18,035 18,334 697 4.1 489 2.8 299 1.7 Participation rate %) 85.4 86.5 86.5 86.6 1.1* 0* 0.1 Unemployment rate %) 15.4 13.8 14.7 18.8 1.6* 0.9* 4.1 Employment / population 25 34 years (%) 72.2 74.6 73.7 70.3 2.4* 0.9* 3.4 Table 5 Labour force 2014 2014 Age 25 34 The 25 34 year old population experienced the highest increase in unemployment rate in all the age groups (Table 5) Unemployment in creased with 4.1 percentage point s from 14.7% in 2016 to 18.8% in 2017. This increase com es from a jump in the unemployed 25 34 year olds of 29.5%. The labour participation rate for this age group has not changed but we can see that the ratio that are actually employed has decreased to 70.3 in 2017 from 73.7 in 2016

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Supply side of the labour market Curaao 2017 Central Bureau of Statistics Cura 25 Labour force of Curaa o 2014 2017 Age 35 44 Abs. muta tions % muta tions Abs. muta tions % muta tions Abs. muta tions % muta tions 2014 2015 2016 2017 2014 2015 2014 2015 2015 2016 2015 2016 2016 2017 2016 2017 Employed population 14,966 14,636 14,871 14,703 330 2.2 235 1.6 168 1.1 Unemployed population 2,260 1,619 1,837 1,906 641 28.4 218 13.5 69 3.8 Labour force 17,226 16,255 16,708 16,609 971 5.6 453 2.8 99 0.6 Economically not active population 2,513 3,336 2,601 2,502 823 32.7 735 22 99 3.8 Population 35 44 years 19,739 19,592 19,309 19,111 147 0.7 283 1.4 198 1 Participation rate %) 87.3 83 86.5 86.9 4.3* 3.5* 0.4 Unemployment rate %) 13.1 10 11 11.5 3.1* 1.0* 0.5 Employment / population 35 44 years %) 75.8 74.7 77 76.9 1.1* 2.3* 0.1 Table 6 Labour Force 2014 201 7 Age 35 44 Labour force of Curao 2014 2017 Age 45 54 Abs. muta tions % muta tions Abs. muta tions % muta tions Abs. muta tions % muta tions 2014 2015 2016 2017 2014 2015 2014 2015 2015 2016 2015 2016 2016 2017 2016 2017 Employed population 17,618 17,938 18,690 17,952 320 1.8 752 4.2 738 3.9 Unemployed population 1,718 1,931 2,179 2,332 213 12.4 248 12.8 153 7 Labour force 19,336 19,869 20,869 20,284 533 2.8 1,000 5 585 2.8 Economically not active population 5,088 4,447 3,413 3,858 641 12.6 1,034 23.3 445 13 Population 45 54 years 24,424 24,316 24,282 24,142 108 0.4 34 0.1 140 0.6 Participation rate %) 79.2 81.7 85.9 84 2.5* 4.2* 1.9 Unemployment rate %) 8.9 9.7 10.4 11.5 0.8* 0.7* 1.1 Employment / population 45 54 years %) 72.1 73.8 77 74.4 1.7* 3.2* 2.6 Table 7 Labour Force 2014 2017 Age 45 54

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Supply side of the labour market Curaao 2017 Central Bureau of Statistics Cura 26 Labour force of Curaao 2014 2017 Age 55 64 Abs. muta tions % muta tions Abs. muta tions % muta tions Abs. muta tions % muta tions 2014 2015 2016 2017 2014 2015 2014 2015 2015 2016 2015 2016 2016 2017 2016 2017 Employed population 9,630 10,507 11,422 11,070 877 9.1 915 8.7 352 3.1 Unemployed population 744 760 866 1116 16 2.2 106 13.9 250 28.9 Labour force 10,374 11,267 12,288 12,186 893 8.6 1,021 9.1 102 0.8 Economically not active population 10,522 10,220 9,802 10,528 302 2.9 418 4.1 726 7.4 Population 55 64 years 20,896 21,487 22,090 22,714 591 2.8 603 2.8 624 2.8 Participation rate %) 49.6 52.4 55.6 53.6 2.8* 3.2* 2 Unemployment rate %) 7.2 6.7 7 9.2 0.5* 0.3* 2.2 Employment/population 55 64 years (%) 46.1 48.9 51.7 48.7 2.8* 2.8* 3 Table 8 Labour Force 2014 2017 Age 55 64 Labour force of Curaao 2014 2017 Age 65+ Abs. muta tions % muta tions Abs. muta tions % muta tions Abs. muta tions % muta tions 2014 2015 2016 2017 2014 2015 2014 2015 2015 2016 2015 2016 2016 2017 2016 2017 Employed population 1,734 1,780 2,386 2,400 46 2.7 606 34 14 0.6 Unemployed population 39 152 179 125 113 >100 27 17.8 54 30.2 Labour force 1,773 1,932 2,565 2,525 159 9 633 32.8 40 1.6 Economically not active population 20,991 21,598 21,843 22,425 607 2.9 245 1.1 582 2.7 Population 65+ years 22,764 23,530 24,408 24,950 766 3.4 878 3.7 542 2.2 Participation rate %) 7.8 8.2 10.5 10.1 0.4* 2.3* 0.4 Unemployment rate %) 2.2 7.9 7 5 5.7* 0.9* 2 Employment/population 65+ years (%) 8.3 7.6 9.8 9.6 0.7* 2.2* 0.2

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Supply side of the labour market Curaao 2017 Central Bureau of Statistics Cura 27 Table 9 Labour Force 2014 2014 Age 65+ Participation r ate reflects the level to which those involved actively participate to the employed population. The figure below (figure 3) shows that certain age group s tend to be more volatile than others. The age group of 25 34 has stayed stable for the past 4 years, whereas the age group of 45 64 shows more volatility. Interestingly, those 65 and older have been participating more. Some reasons could be the increased pension age or an increased financial need which forces people to work longer. Figure 3 Participation Rate by Age 2014 2017 3.2 Employed population An employed person is someone who is older than 14 years old has a job or their own business or who during the week before the research period has performed any work for pay or in kind for 4 h ours or more. Payment in kind means that instead of money, other goods or services are exchanged. In practical terms this includes all those who were interns and unpaid family workers. In 2017, the employed population was 62,834 people divided into 29,81 0 male and 33,024 female employed people. Figure 4 shows that the increasing trend that was emerging 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65+ Participation Rate Axis Title Participation rate by age group 2014 2015 2016 2017

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Supply side of the labour market Curaao 2017 Central Bureau of Statistics Cura 28 since 2014 in employed population has stopped. Both groups have decreased in absolute numbers. Figure 4 Employed Population 1992 2017 The employment rate is an indic s potential i s being utilized. The employment rate has been increasing until 2017 when it dropped with 2 percentage points (Table 10) This decrease comes mostly from the male who decreased by nearly 4 percentage points from 56.4 percent in 2016 to 52.8 percent in 2017. The m ost likely reason for this decline is the group layoffs in 2016 and 2017. Employment Rate 2014 2017 by gender 2014 2015 2016 2017 2014 2015 2015 2016 2016 2017 Employment Rate Total 47.9 49.2 51.1 49.1 1.3 1.9 2 Employment Rate Men 52.6 53.9 56.4 52.8 1.3 2.5 3.6 Employment Rate Women 44.2 45.5 47 46.2 1.3 1.5 0.8 Table 10 Employment Rate 201 2017 by gender 0 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 70,000 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2011 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Absolute number Year Employed population Total Men Women

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Supply side of the labour market Curaao 2017 Central Bureau of Statistics Cura 29 3.2.1 Economic position Looking at the economic position of the employed population from 2014, it shows that the biggest loss overall was in the category of those employed as casual workers or freelancer and employees working for an employment agency. The only categories that increased were self employed and e mployees in permanent service. Economic Position 2014 2017 Absolute Percentage % mutations 2014 2015 2016 2017 2014 2015 2016 2017 2014 2015 2015 2016 2016 2017 Employer 1,875 1,104 1,404 1,327 3.2 1.8 2.2 2.1 41.1 27.2 5.5 Self employed 4,681 5,264 5,372 5,893 7.9 8.5 8.3 9.4 12.5 2.1 9.7 Employee in permanent service 37,063 38,393 38,361 39,675 62.5 62.1 58.9 63.1 3.6 0.1 3.4 Employee in temporary service 7,496 9,220 9,645 9,343 12.6 14.9 14.8 14.9 23 4.6 3.1 Casual worker/freelancer 6,092 6,511 8,684 5,816 10.3 10.5 13.3 9.3 6.9 33.4 33 Other 1 766 958 1,617 598 1.3 1.5 2.5 0.9 25.1 68.8 63 Unknown/not reported 1,322 373 34 182 2.2 0.6 0.1 0.3 71.8 90.9 435.3 Table 11 Economic Position 2014 2017 Comparing the employment status of males (Table 12) and females (Table 13) once again it shows that male lost relatively more than the females in all categories except the increase of the employees in permanent service. Employment in permanent service increased stronger in absolute terms for the male population than for the fem ale population.

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Supply side of the labour market Curaao 2017 Central Bureau of Statistics Cura 30 Economic Position 2014 2017 Male Absolute Percentage % mutations 2014 2015 2016 2017 2014 2015 2016 2017 2014 2015 2015 2016 2016 2017 Employer 1,269 907 1,122 914 4.4 3 3.5 3.1 28.5 23.7 18.5 Self employed 3,169 3,362 3,605 3,418 11.1 11.3 11.4 11.5 6.1 7.2 5.2 Employee in permanent service 16,492 17,233 17,126 17,984 57.6 57.7 54.1 60.3 4.5 0.6 5 Employee in temporary service 3,480 4,366 4,251 4,074 12.2 14.6 13.4 13.7 25.5 2.6 4.2 Casual worker / freelancer 3,316 3,432 4,714 3,083 11.6 11.5 14.9 10.3 3.5 37.4 34.6 Other 1 175 396 832 233 0.6 1.3 2.6 0.7 126.3 110.1 72 Unknown/not reported 722 151 34 104 2.5 0.5 0.1 0.4 79.1 77.5 205.9 Table 12 Economic Position 2014 2017 Male 1 Economic Position 2014 2017 Female Absolute Percentage % mutations 2014 2015 2016 2017 2014 2015 2016 2017 2014 2015 2015 2016 2016 2017 Employer 606 197 282 413 2 0.6 0.8 1.3 67.5 43.1 46.5 Self employed 1,512 1,903 1,767 2,475 4.9 6 5.3 7.5 25.9 7.1 40.1 Employee in permanent service 20,570 21,160 21,235 21,691 67.1 66.2 63.5 65.8 2.9 0.4 2.1 Employee in temporary service 4,015 4,854 5,394 5,269 13.1 15.2 16.1 16 20.9 11.1 2.3 Casual worker/freelancer 2,775 3,079 3,970 2,733 9 9.6 11.9 8.3 11 28.9 31.2 Other 1 591 562 786 365 1.9 1.8 2.4 1 4.9 39.9 53.6 Unknown/not reported 603 221 0 78 2 0.7 0 0.1 63.3 100 Table 13 Economic Position 2014 2017 Female

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Supply side of the labour market Curaao 2017 Central Bureau of Statistics Cura 31 Female employers and self employed experienced a huge increase in 2017. The se categories increased with 46.5 percent and 40.1 percent respectively. This increase came at the expense of the casual workers / freelancers. When labour opportunities decrease, people tend to either get disillusioned with the market and the economically inactive increases or people fin d other ways to get an income. This can manifest itself in an increase in self employed as we can see in this instance. Threat of extended unemployment may very well force an explosion of self employed and independent small businesses by disillusioned une https://www.huffingtonpost.com/grant cardone/unemployment makes self e_b_614648.html 3.2.2 Occupation O ccupations in 2017 saw an increase in managerial occupations of nearly 2 percentage points (1.9%) and the biggest decrease was in elementary occupations. The increase coincides with the increase in self employed economic positions shown in table 11 Occupation of employed population, Sep tember October 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017 by sex Men %) Women %) Total %) 2014 2015 2016 2017 2014 2015 2016 2017 2014 2015 2016 2017 Armed forces 0.7 0.1 0.2 1 0.2 0 0 0 0.4 0.1 0.1 0.5 Managers 14.3 11.9 11.5 12.9 8.8 7.1 7.2 9.5 11.5 9.4 9.3 11.2 Professionals 9 7.4 6.9 6.8 12.2 12.4 12.6 13.8 10.7 10 9.8 10.5 Technicians and associate professionals 16.1 15.8 16.7 18.5 14.6 16.2 18.6 17.3 15.3 16 17.6 17.8 Clerical support workers 4.7 6.4 5.9 4.6 19.5 19.9 19.3 17.2 12.4 13.4 12.8 11.3 Service and sales workers 14.1 13.2 14.5 13.8 23.9 23.9 21.7 23.1 19.1 18.8 18.2 18.7 Skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers 0.3 0.6 0.3 0.7 0 0 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.4 Craft and related trades workers 19.7 18.7 19.8 20.3 2.1 0.7 2.2 1 10.6 9.4 10.8 10.2 Plant and machine operators, and assemblers 9.3 9.4 8.7 8.6 1.4 1.6 1.2 1.2 5.2 5.4 4.9 4.7 Elementary occupations 9.8 12.5 13 11.5 16.1 14.5 16.1 15.9 13 13.5 14.6 13.8 Unknown/not reported 2.1 3.9 2.4 1.3 1.4 3.7 0.9 0.8 1.7 3.7 1.6 1

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Supply side of the labour market Curaao 2017 Central Bureau of Statistics Cura 32 Ta ble 14 Occupation of employed population by gender 2014 2017 3.2.3 Sectors The sector employing more people was the who lesale and retail trade industry (Table 15) In 2017, the biggest movements happened in the construction sector with a decrease of 2 percentage points followed by the manufacturing sector with an increase of 1.7 percentage points. Human health and social work sector and the accommodation and food services sector also saw movements with an increase of 0.9 and a decrease of 0.6 percentage points respectively Economic activity of employed population 2014 2017 Percentage 2014 2015 2016 2017 Agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining, and quarrying 0.6 0.2 0.3 0.4 Manufacturing 7.2 6.1 5.7 7.4 Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply 0.7 1.2 0.7 1.3 Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities 1.2 1.1 1.2 0.9 Construction 6.6 6.5 7.9 5.9 Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles 16.8 17.4 16.8 16.1 Transportation and storage 5.3 5.3 4.9 4.9 Accommodation and food service activities 8.9 8.4 9.1 8.5 Information and communication 3.2 2.8 2.9 3 Financial and insurance activities 7.1 7.5 7.2 7.6 Real estate activities 0.7 0.6 1.4 0.9 Professional, scientific and technical activities 3.7 3.4 4.1 3.9 Administrative and support service activities 5.6 6.5 6.7 6.5 Public administration and defence; compulsory social security 8.4 6.6 7.1 7.7 Education 4.9 4.3 4.7 4.8 Human health and social work activities 9.7 9.7 8.8 9.7 Arts, entertainment and recreation 2.5 2.5 3.4 3.5 Other service activities 2.3 2.7 2 2.4 Activities of households as employers; undifferentiated goods and services producing activities of households for own use 2.9 3.3 3.7 3.3 Activities of extraterritorial organizations and bodies 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 Table 15 Economic activity 2014 2017 The decrease in the accommodation and food service sector corresponds with recent econom ic developments in this industry with the closing of a major hotel in 2016

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Supply side of the labour market Curaao 2017 Central Bureau of Statistics Cura 33 3.2.4 Underemployment In 2017, 65.6 percent of employed people worked 40 hours (Table 16) This is an increase over 2016 when 59.7 percent indicated that they worked 40 hours. Comparing men and women, o ne can see that men are more likely to wo r k more than 40 hours In 2017 13.9 percent worked more than 40 hours compared to 6.8 percent of women. Total hours worked of employed population by gender 2014 2017 Men %) Women %) Total %) 2014 2015 2016 2017 2014 2015 2016 2017 2014 2015 2016 2017 4 20 hours 8.9 8.4 8.8 8.2 13.1 12.8 14.7 13.5 11.1 10.8 11.9 11 21 39 hours 6.7 7 10.5 9.2 12.4 10.8 16.3 13.5 9.6 9 13.5 11.5 40 hours 65.6 66.1 61.6 67.2 63.6 64.5 57.9 64.2 64.3 65.3 59.7 65.6 41 60 hours 15.7 14.3 15 12.9 9.8 9.1 9.4 6.3 15 11.7 12.2 9.4 > 60 hours 2.2 1.8 1.8 1 0.6 0.4 0.6 0.5 1.4 1.1 1.2 0.8 Unknown/not reported 1 2.3 2.3 1.5 0.9 2.4 1 2 0.9 2.4 1.6 1.7 Table 16 Total hours worked by gender 2014 2017 One of the definitions of underemployment states that a person is considered to be underemployed when they are not being used to the full extent of their abilities. This can be measured by looking at the share of people who are employed but are looking for more hours of work. Recession is one of the main reasons of underemployment as it indicates that people are taking on any employment while looking for a more fulfilling job. In 2017, f rom the employed, 10.6 percent indicated that they were looking for more hours of work. This group are most likely feeling the economic strain and are thus not using and/or not finding a job utilizing their complete potential. This is a decrease from 2016, when 15.3 percent was looking for more hours of work.

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Supply side of the labour market Curaao 2017 Central Bureau of Statistics Cura 34 3.2.5 Highest Education In 2017 most employed people have second level secondary and third level education; an education of HAVO and higher. This has stayed constant for the last four years. Highest level of education of employed population, 2014 2017 by sex Men %) Women %) Total %) 2014 2015 2016 2017 2014 2015 2016 2017 2014 2015 2016 2017 Current daytime education1 1.8 3 3.9 2.9 2.6 3 3.2 2.4 2.2 3 3.6 2.6 No education -1.5 1 1.6 -1.4 1 1 -1.4 1 1.3 Elementary 1 5.7 5.8 5.1 7.7 5.9 4.9 7 6.6 5.8 5.3 6.1 7.1 Second level, first stage 1 35.3 32.8 33 33.3 30.1 29.8 26.9 28 32.6 31.3 29.9 30.5 Second level, second stage 1 29.6 32.5 33.2 32.3 34.1 31.8 34.1 31.9 31.9 32.1 33.7 32.1 Third level 1 24.7 22.3 22.3 25.1 25 27.4 27.3 32.3 24.8 25 24.7 28.9 Unknown/not reported -2 1.4 0.1 -1.7 0.8 0.2 -1.9 1.1 0.1 Table 17 Highest education 2014 2017 by sex 1 Current daytime education = currently attending a daytime education Second level, first stage = VSBO, HAVO years 1+2, VWO years 1+2 or equivalent Second level, second stage = HAVO year s 3+4+5, VWO years 3+4+5+6, SBO, MBO or equivalent Third level = HBO, WO, and postdoctoral or equivalent -percentages are therefore not presented. 3. 3 Unemployed Population A person is identified as being unemployed if they are 15 years or older, not employed or having worked more than 4 hours the week before, actively seeking employment and able to start within two weeks. These three criteria must be met otherwise a person is classified as being economically not active.

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Supply side of the labour market Curaao 2017 Central Bureau of Statistics Cura 35 Figure 5 Unemployment Rate 1992 2017 Even though the unemployment has increased in the last three years, it has not reached its maximum. From the figure above (Figure 5) we can see some cyclical behavior as the unemployment rate increases and decreases every five to six years. 3.3.1 Reasons and time looking for work unemployed (Table 17) In fact, this reason has been increasing over the last 3 Half of the unemployed (50.6%) wants to work but cannot find work or have been fired (28.6%). 10.5 11.4 11 9.9 10.4 12.5 14.1 12.0 13.7 14.0 13.1 15.1 17.1 11.3 10.2 8.1 7.8 8.4 10.5 11.3 10.5 11.8 12.9 17.9 16.2 15 17.0 18.1 18.7 19.7 16.3 18.0 17.1 17.1 17.0 19.2 17.7 14.4 12.4 11.2 11.0 15.4 13.8 12.8 14.6 15.2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2011 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Percentage (% Year Unemployment rate Total Men Women

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Supply side of the labour market Curaao 2017 Central Bureau of Statistics Cura 36 Reasons looking for work 2015 2017 2015 2016 2017 Fired / end of contract / end of job / closed own business 22.6 21.6 28.6 Finished school 9.4 7.2 6.9 Wants to work, but cannot find any 45.2 48.2 50.6 Other 13.3 15.1 13.9 Table 18 Reason unemployed 2015 2017 Most unemployed people have been looking for work longer than 12 months (45.6%). Since 2014 this has increased significantly. The same results can be seen by gender in table 18 In 2014, most women had been looking for work between 1 and 12 months, but in 2017, the period increased to longer than 12 months. The men are having a little bit more success in finding work than women. In 2014 the majority (43.7%) had been looking f or less than 12 months and 36.7 percent longer than 12 months. Since 2015 the distribution changed with more people looking for longer than 12 months. Time looking for work 2014 2017 by sex Men %) Women %) Total %) 2014 2015 2016 2017 2014 2015 2016 2017 2014 2015 2016 2017 Less than 1 month 7.6 6 7.7 0 6.7 3.4 8.6 4.4 7.1 4.5 8.2 2.5 1 3 months 19 12.7 8.5 18 13.6 12.5 18.5 13.2 10.8 3 6 months 13.8 15.9 14.3 7.6 13.3 9.3 10.3 14.4 11.4 6 12 months 20.2 22.4 26.7 22.3 14.1 18.4 21.4 17.6 21.9 Between 1 12 months 43.7 53 51 49.5 43.9 47.9 41 40.2 43.8 50.2 45.2 44.1 12 months or longer 36.7 39 41.3 44.3 39.9 48.7 49.9 46.6 38.5 44.5 46.3 45.6 Unknown/not reported 12 1.9 0 6.2 9.5 0 0.5 8.8 10.6 0.8 0.3 7.7 Table 19 Time looking for work by sex 2014 2017 3.3.2 Ways looking for work The method which people use to look for work indicates the level of commitment to finding employment. Someone who visits companies personally or writes open solicitation letters, shows a different commitment from those who only respond to published applica tions. Of those who are actively looking for work, more than a third constantly through the years visit companies personally (Table 20) The share has not changed a lot over the years. In 2014, 40.9 percent made personal visits compared to 42.9 percent in 2017.

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Supply side of the labour market Curaao 2017 Central Bureau of Statistics Cura 37 The largest change can be seen in those who use private agencies or the SOAW ministry. This share decreased from 10.3 in 20165 to 5.8 in 2017. Methods of looking for work by unemployed population by gender 2014 2017 Men %) Women %) Total %) 2014 2015 2016 2017 2014 2015 2016 2017 2014 2015 2016 2017 Visited companies personally 42.6 45 51 47.4 39.7 36.3 41.5 39.5 40.9 40 45.4 42.9 Wrote application letter 20.5 23.7 16.2 13.6 29.3 27 29.9 21.3 25.6 25.6 24.2 18 Responded to advertisements non online -2 3.8 7.8 -4.4 5.2 4 -3.4 4.6 5.6 Responded to advertisements online -6.8 5.2 7.1 -8.7 7.7 8.3 -7.9 6.7 7.8 Responded to advertisements 2.8 8.8 9 6.4 13.1 12.9 4.8 11.3 11.3 Through private agencies -4.9 3.6 3.8 7.4 2.4 3.1 -6.3 2.9 3.4 Through the SOAW Ministry 1.7 1.8 5.8 3.8 4 2.9 Through private agencies or the SOAW Ministry 5.2 6.6 5.4 7.6 2.2 13.2 6.2 4.5 3.5 10.3 5.8 5.8 Through friends or family 13.5 13.6 13.2 6.5 8.3 10.5 7.9 10.5 10.5 11.9 10.1 8.8 Other 14.4 2.2 5.2 0 13.5 0 1.6 1.3 13.9 1 3.1 0.7 Table 20 Methods looking for work by gender 2014 2017 3 .3 .3 Sector looking for work Markets work on supply and demand. When these two do not meet, a gap is created causing invisible underemployment and unemployment. In 2017, the sectors where people were looking for employment the most were the accommodation and food service sector, the wholesale and retail trade and the construction sector (Table 21).

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Supply side of the labour market Curaao 2017 Central Bureau of Statistics Cura 38 Industries where people are looking for work by gender Male Female Total Accommodation and food service activities 10.80% 18.90% 15.40% Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles 15.50% 13.00% 14.10% Construction 25.10% 1.40% 11.60% Human health and social work activities 0.00% 15.30% 8.70% Manufacturing 9.10% 1.40% 4.70% Activities of households as employers; undifferentiated goods and services producing activities of households for own use 1.00% 7.30% 4.60% Financial and insurance activities 3.10% 5.00% 4.10% Public administration and defence; compulsory social security 5.90% 2.80% 4.10% Administrative and support service activities 1.00% 5.50% 3.60% Professional, scientific and technical activities 2.00% 2.00% 2.00% Information and communication 2.20% 0.70% 1.30% Transportation and storage 2.10% 0.70% 1.30% Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities 2.00% 0.70% 1.30% Agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining and quarrying 1.70% 0.70% 1.10% Arts, entertainment and recreation 0.90% 0.70% 0.80% Education 1.00% 0.70% 0.80% Real estate activities 0.00% 0.70% 0.40% Other service activities 0.0% 1.4% 0.8% Unknown/not reported 16.7% 21.3% 19.3% Table 21 Sectors looking for work by gender 2017 There are also those who want to start their own companies and are ready (if all finances are in place) to start within two weeks. The sectors where these start up companies are located are mostly accommodation and food service activities, wholesale and retail trade and human health and social work activities Figure 6)

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Supply side of the labour market Curaao 2017 Central Bureau of Statistics Cura 39 Figure 6 Industries startup 2017 3.4 Economically I n ac tive Population Economically inactive people are those who are not currently employed and are also not actively looking for a job. They are classified as inactive because they are not actively contributing or looking to contribute to the economy. When a country experiences a spell of bad economy people who are not able to find work tend to give up and become inactive. So the reasons why people are inactive should be taken into account as an indicator of dissatisfaction. 32.5% 16.1% 14.3% 12.1% 5.7% 4.7% 4.5% 5.6% 4.5% Industries for startup companies 2017

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Supply side of the labour market Curaao 2017 Central Bureau of Statistics Cura 40 3.4.1 Reasons not looking for work The most important reason in 2017 was pensioners and students which is logical Noteworthy is the increase in the reason that there is no work to be found This reason was quoted 1.5 percent in 2016 but increased more than twice to 3.4 percent This is an indication of a growing dissatisfaction with the market (Figure 7 Figure 7 Reasons economically inactive 2014 2017 Table 2 2 shows the differences by gender. The belief that there is no work has also significantly increased between 2016 (0.9%) and 2017 (4.2%) amongst the men. Physical and mental illness is also a reason that has increased among men. It is in fact the highest it has been in the last 4 years. 6.5 3.4 50.9 22.8 3.5 9.5 2.6 0.8 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Homemakers Belief there is no work available Pensioner/age Wanting to finish school/study Family circumstances Physical/mental illness Other reason Unknown/not reported Reasons Economically Inactive 2014 2017 2017 2016 2015 2014

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Supply side of the labour market Curaao 2017 Central Bureau of Statistics Cura 41 Reasons for not looking for work by eco nomically not active population by gender 2014 2017 Men %) Women %) Total %) 2014 2015 2016 2017 2014 2015 2016 2017 2014 2015 2016 2017 Homemakers 0 0 0.3 0.5 13.6 14.2 11.1 10.7 8.2 8.6 6.9 6.5 Belief there is no work available 6.1 5.2 0.9 4.2 4.5 3.3 1.8 2.8 5.1 4 1.5 3.4 Pensioner/age 49.3 49.2 53.1 50.1 45.5 46.4 50.4 51.4 47 47.5 51.5 50.9 Wanting to finish school/study 29.2 28.3 28.7 27.6 22.7 21 20.5 19.4 25.2 23.8 23.7 22.8 Family circumstances 1.7 2 2.1 1.5 1.7 2.9 3.3 4.8 1.7 2.6 2.8 3.5 Physical/mental illness 10.7 9.1 9 12.2 9.7 8.9 8.6 7.7 10.1 9.1 8.7 9.5 Other reason 2.6 5.7 3.4 2.7 1.5 3 3.4 2.6 2 4 3.4 2.6 Unknown/not reported 0.4 0.5 2.3 1.1 0.9 0.3 1 0.6 0.7 0.4 1.5 0.8 Table 22 Reasons for looking for work by gender 2014 2017

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Supply side of the labour market Curaao 2017 Central Bureau of Statistics Cura 42 4 Income Results 4 .1 Main income The gross monthly income distribution for 2017 shows that most people earn between 1 001 and 2 000 guilders. Dividing by gender changes the distribution as most males earn more than 3 000 guilders a month compared to most women earning between 1 ,0 00 and 2 000 guilders a month (Table 23 Gross monthly income of employed population 2017 Men %) W omen %) Total %) NAf. 0 500 4.4 5.1 4.8 NAf. 501 1000 6.1 9.2 7.7 NAf. 1001 2000 26.5 31.5 29.1 NAf. 2001 3000 20.6 17.5 18.9 NAf. 3001 + 28.9 24.7 26.8 Unknown/not reported 13.5 12 12.7 Table 23 Gross monthly income by gender 2017 The average net income by gender show s a slight advantage for men. Men earnt on the Average monthly income by main source of income by gender Male Female Total Labour/business 2 934.19 2 506.92 2,705.89 Old Age pension (AOV) 1 058.82 946.34 983.33 Pension (APNA, private pension, company pension etc. 3 315.93 2 562.14 2,975.58 Widow and orphanage pension 615.91 1 689.96 1,556.65 Welfare 364.63 379.96 373.70 Own capital/property 4 679.08 5 195 .00 4,765.51 Scholarship 783.53 1 228.9 0 1,074.70 Retaining pay/severance pay arrangement 1 057.53 1,057.53 Child support/alimony 677.8 0 677.80 Other 1 749.1 0 1 666.22 1,722.23 Unknown 1 762.53 2 764.48 2,334.51 Total 2,493.02 1,944.29 2,187.60 Table 24 Average monthly income by main source of income 2017 The categories where the difference is more pronounced are labour/business, and private pension (Figure 8) The average monthly income for labour/business is lower for women. They earn on the average 2, 506 guilders monthly compared to the average for men which is 2,934 guilders. There is also a difference in private pension which could be explained by the lower earnings of women.

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Supply side of the labour market Curaao 2017 Central Bureau of Statistics Cura 43 Women earn significantly more than men in w idow and orphanage pension. Tab le 25 shows that women are 7 times more likely to receive widow and orphanage pension. A person is entitled to widow and orphan pension i f a parent passes away leaving behind dependents of twenty one years of age or younger. Figure 8 Average monthly income differences Source of Income Male Female Ratio Labour/business 24,942 28,619 1.1 Old Age pension AOV) 6,085 12,420 2.0 Pension APNA, private pension, company pension etc. 5,148 4,238 0.8 Widow and orphanage pension 88 621 7.1 Welfare 2,506 3,631 1.4 Own capital/property 159 32 0.2 Scholarship 152 287 1.9 Retaining pay/severance pay arrangement 32 Child support/alimony 232 Other 1,374 659 0.5 Unknown 109 145 1.3 -1000 -500 0 500 1000 1500 Labour/business Old Age pension (AOV Pension (APNA, private pension, company pension etc. Widowand orphanage pension Welfare Own capital/property Scholarship Other Unknown Average monthly income differences between gender

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Supply side of the labour market Curaao 2017 Central Bureau of Statistics Cura 44 Table 25 Income Source 2018 by gender 4 .2 Second source of income The most frequent second source of income is old age pension (AOV). Of th e 15 and older population, 82.7 percent do not have a second income (Table 2 5 ). Main and second source of income Main source Second source Labour/business 46.3% 2.1% Old Age pension (AOV) 14.7% 10.0% Pension (APNA, private pension, company pension etc. 7.7% 2.5% Widow and orphanage pension 0.6% 0.5% Welfare 4.9% 0.2% Own capital/property 0.1% 0.2% Scholarship 0.4% 0.1% Retaining pay/severance pay arrangement 0.03% 0.0% Child support/alimentation 0.2% 0.3% Other 1.8% 0.9% No income 22.7% 82.7% Unknown / Refused 0.6% 0.4% Table 26 Main and second source of income

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Supply side of the labour market Curaao 2017 Central Bureau of Statistics Cura 45 5. References Baker, R. P., Bradburn, N. M., & Johnson, R. A. 1995. Computer assisted Personal Interviewing: An Experimental Evaluation of Data Quality and Cost. Journal of Official Statistics 413 431. Bureau, U. S. Census 2015, October 14. Census and Survey Processing System CSPro) Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/population/international/software/cspro/. Burgerlijk Wetboek Boek 7A. n.d.. Centraal Wettenregister. 2013. Arbeidsverordening 2013 ClassApps. 2015, October 14. Retrieved from http://www.classapps.com/. International Labour Organization. 2015, December 4. Key Indicators of the Labour Market 2015 KILM: Education and labour market Retrieved from http://www .ilo.org/global/statistics and databases/research and databases/kilm/WCMS_421999/lang -en/index.htm. International Labour Organization. 2017, January 9. ILOSTAT. Retrieved from http://www.ilo.org/ilostat/faces/oracle/webcenter/portalapp/pagehierarchy/Pag e21.jspx?_afrLoop=15 64592893214319&_afrWindowMode=0&_afrWindowId=zziqe65vr_30#!%40%40%3F_afrWindowId% 3Dzziqe65vr_30%26_afrLoop%3D1564592893214319%26_afrWindowMode%3D0%26_adf.ctrl state%3Dzziqe65vr_66 International Labour Organization. 2016, December 16. 2016 Labor overview of Latin America and the Caribbean. Retrieved from http://www.ilo.org/global/about the ilo/newsroom/news/WCMS_538067/lang -en/index.htm Eurofound. 2015, October 14. European Observatory of Working Life EurWORK, Labour Market Retr ieved from http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/areas/labourmarket/index. Eurostat. 2015, October 14. Eurostat Statistics Explained Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics explained/index.php/Glossary:Labour_market. Hussmanns, R. 2007, March 3 0. Measurement of employment, unemployment and underemployment Current international standards and issues in their application. Lake, Z. 2013. Methodologie van het Arbeidskrachtenonderzoek. Willemstad, Curaao: Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. Ministry of Economic Development. 2015, October 14. Business Census Korsou 2014 Retrieved from http://www.businesscensus.cw/en/census. Youth Unemployment Causes and Solutions https://peacechild.org/youth unemployment causes and solutions/

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Supply side of the labour market Curaao 2017 Central Bureau of Statistics Cura 46 Unemployment Makes Self Employed a Necessity, Not a Dream https://www.huffingtonpost.com/grant cardone/unemployment makes self e_b_614648.html

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Supply side of the labour market Curaao 2017 Central Bureau of Statistics Cura 47 6 Classifications in the LFS 6.1 Education Education is classified according to the International Standard Classification of Education ISCED 1997. In this report a compact version of the ISCED was used, with the following categories: 1. No education 2. Elementary education 3. Second level education, first stage 4. Second level education, first stage 5. Third level education Postdoctoral courses 6.2 Industry (sector) Industry is classified according to the International Standard Industrial Classification ISIC rev. 4. The following main categories were used in this report: 1. Agriculture, forestry and fishing 2. Mining and quarrying 3. Manufacturing 4. Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply

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Supply side of the labour market Curaao 2017 Central Bureau of Statistics Cura 48 5. Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities 6. Construction 7. Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles 8. Transportation and storage 9. Accommodation and food service activities 10. Information and communication 11. Financial and insurance activities 12. Real estate activities 13. Prof essional, scientific and technical activities 14. Administrative and support service activities 15. Public administration and defence; compulsory social security 16. Education 17. Human health and social work activities 18. Arts, entertainment and recreati on 19. Other service activities 20. Activities of households as employers; undiffe rentiated goods and services producing activities of households for own use 21. Activities of extraterritorial organizations and bodies 6.3 Occupation Occupation is classified according to the International Standard Classification of Occupation ISCO 08. The following main categories were used in this report: 1. Armed forces 2. Managers 3. Professionals 4. Technicians and associate professionals 5. Clerical support workers 6. Service and sales workers 7. S killed agricultural, forestry and fishery workers 8. Craft and related trades workers 9. Plant and machine operators and assemblers 10. Elementary occupations