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Integration of ICT in Private Households: Ict and Media Survey 2017

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Integration of ICT in Private Households: Ict and Media Survey 2017

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Integration of ICT in Private Households ICT and Media Survey 2017 Willemstad, November 2018

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Address: Central Bureau of Statistics World Trade Center Curaao Tel. (599 9) 839 2300 E mail: info@cbs.cw Website: www.cbs.cw Http://digitallibrary.cbs.cw Facebook: cbscur Copyright Willemstad, Central Bureau of Statistics , 2018 The contents of this publication may be quoted, provided that the source is given accurately and clearly. ISBN: 978 99904 5 162 7

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Preface The use of information and communication technology has an impact on the modern society. Over the years the increased infiltration important role in production and economy as well as in all other spheres of life of individuals and society as a whole. Due to this development the Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao has conducted an ICT & Media survey in 2017 to measure the access to and the use of Information and Communication Technology including social media by the households and people of Curaao. Th e report is divided into two parts. The first describes the ICT usage of the households in Curacao and the second part describes the ICT usage of the individuals in Curaao. The CBS of Curacao hopes that this report meets the need for information of the IC T usage of the population of Curacao and that the results will be used by the community. A sincere word of thanks goes to the households and persons who participated in this survey, to the author of this publication Mrs. Maurette Williams and the staff of the CBS for their valuable input that. The d irector Drs. Sean de Boer

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Summary Technology and the internet have become an important part of everyday life. It has life, technology is now a basic need and it is thus important for a country to be wel l integrated with ICT capabilities. The ICT Development Index has been developed to allow international comparison. As a population the IDI index of Curaao is 6.9 out of a maximum score of 10. This index looks at different areas. The area that has the mo st opportunity for improvement is ICT access. ICT access includes internet speed and this is where we as a country are lacking the most. The ICT & Media Survey conducted in 2017 aims to understand the level of internet penetration and usage in households a nd by persons aged 6 and older. With online presence intruding on all levels of society such as social interaction, education and entertainment, it is imperative that we understand to which extent information technology has integrated our society. The resu lts show that younger generations are more involved with information technology than the older generations. It also depicts a gap between males and females. The reason for this gap might be generational as literature suggests however, the difference in gen erations will be explored in a Modus art

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Samenvatting Technologie en internet maken tegenwoordig een belangrijk deel uit van het dagelijkse leven. Ze heffen fysieke grenzen op en maken de wereld klei ner. Aangezien het leven van iedereen hierdoor wordt geraakt, kan technologie inmiddels ook wel als een basisbehoefte worden gezien. Een goede integratie op het gebied van alles wat de ICT te bieden heeft, is voor een land dus van groot belang. Om vergeli jkingen op internationale schaal mogelijk te maken, is de ICT Development Index (IDI) door International Telecommunication Union (ITU) ontwikkeld. Daarop scoort de bevolking van Curaao een 6,9 uit 10. De IDI index neemt meerdere aspecten in overweging, en daaruit kwam 'toegang tot ICT' uit de bus als het gebied waar lokaal gezien de meeste ruimte is voor verbetering. Onder toegang tot ICT valt onder andere de internetsnelheid en dat is waar wij als land momenteel het meeste in tekortschieten. De ICT & Med ia enqute die in 2017 is uitgevoerd, had tot doel inzicht te geven over het niveau van internetpenetratie en gebruik onder huishoudens en onder personen van 6 jaar en ouder. Het gebruik van internet op allerlei terreinen van de samenleving, zoals sociale interactie, onderwijs en entertainment, maakt het noodzakelijk te begrijpen in hoeverre informatietechnologie in onze samenleving is gentegreerd. De resultaten laten zien dat jongere generaties meer betrokken zijn bij informatietechnologie dan de oudere. Er valt ook een kloof waar te nemen tussen mannen en vrouwen. De literatuur suggereert echter dat de reden voor deze kloof ook aan verschillen tussen generaties onderling kan liggen. Op dergelijke generatieverschillen wordt verder ingegaan in een volgend

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Resmen Teknologia i internt a bira parti importante di bida diario. Nan ta elimin un kantidat di limitashon fsiko i a hasi mundu bira mas chikitu den un sentido. Teknologia a bira parti importante pa uso di ICT ta bon integr den poblashon di un pais. ICT Development Index (IDI) ta un ndise formul pa International Telecommunication Union (ITU), pa yuda kompar desaroyo teknolgiko di diferente pais. Poblashon di Krsou ta skor 6.9 for di un mksimo di 10 punto den e ndise IDI. E ndise ak ta tene er entre otro velosidat di internet, i komo pais esei ta nos punto dbil prinsipal aktualmente. Na 2017, a tene un enkuesta di ICT i media (ICT & Media Survey) ku e meta di komprond te kon leu e kasnan di famia i hende di 6 aa bai ariba tin akseso na in ternet komprond te kon leu uso di teknologia di informashon a bira parti bida den nos ko munidat. E resultadonan di e enkuesta ta mustra ku e generashonnan mas yn ta usa teknologia di informashon mas tantu kompar ku e generashonnan mas grandi. Tambe por mira un diferensia entre hende hmber i hende muh. Sinembargo, literatura ta indik ku e motibu di diferensia ak (entre e dos seksonan) por tin di aber ku diferensia entre un ekspl or e diferensia entre e diferente generashonnan.

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Definitions and ICT indicators In this chapter the description and definition of the core indicators on access to, and use of, ICT by households and individuals are explained . Radio : A radio is defined as a device capable of receiving broadcast radio signals, using common frequencies, such as FM, AM, LW and SW. A radio may be a stand alone device, or it may be integrated with another device, such as an alarm clock, an audio player, a mobile telephone or a computer. Television : A television (TV) is a device capable of receiving broadcast television signals, using popular access means such as over the air, cable and satellite. A television set is typically a stand alone device, but it may also be integrated with another device, such as a computer or a mobile telephone. Fixed telephone: A fixed telephone line refers to a telephone line connecting a customer's terminal equipment (e.g. telephone set, facsimile machine) to the public switched telephone network ( PSTN) and which has a dedicated port on a telephone exchange. A mobile (cellular) telephone refers to a portable telephone subscribing to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provides access to the PSTN. This includes analogue and digital cellular systems and technologies such as IMT 2000 (3G) and IMT Advanced. Users of both postpaid subscriptions and prepaid accounts are included. Computer : A computer refers to a desktop computer, a laptop (portable) computer or a tablet (or s imilar handheld computer). Desktop : a computer that usually remains fixed in one place; normally the user is placed in front of it, behind the keyboard. Laptop (portable) computer : a computer that is small enough to carry and usually enables the same tasks as a desktop computer; it includes notebooks and netbooks but does not include tablets and similar handheld computers. Tablet (or similar handheld computer) : a tablet is a compu ter that is integrated into a flat touch screen, operated by touching the screen rather than (or as well as) using a physical keyboard. It does not include equipment with some embedded computing abilities, such as smart TV sets, and devices with telephony as their primary function, such as smartphones Internet : The Internet is a worldwide public computer network. It provides access to a number of communication services including the World Wide Web and carries e mail, news, entertainment and data files, irre

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also be by mobile telephone, tablet, PDA, games machine, digital TV etc.). Access can be via a fixed or mobile network. Multichannel TV services are as follows: Cable TV (CATV) : m ultichannel programming delivered over a coaxial cable for viewing on television sets Direct to home (DTH) satellite services : TV services received via a satellite dish capable of receiving satellite television broadcasts Internet protocol TV (IPTV) : mul timedia services such as television / video / audio / text / graphics / data delivered over an IP based network managed to support the required level of quality of service, quality of experience, security, interactivity and reliability; it does not include video accessed over the public Internet, for example, by streaming. IPTV services are also generally aimed at viewing over a television set rather than a personal computer. Digital terrestrial TV (DTT) : the technological evolution from analogue terrestri al television, providing capability for significantly more channels

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Table of Contents Preface ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 3 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 4 Samenvatting ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 5 Resmen ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 6 Definitions and ICT indicators ................................ ................................ ................................ 7 1.Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 11 2. Methodology ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 12 3. Results ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 14 3.1 Household ICT Usage ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 14 3.2 Individual ICT Usage ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 16 3.2. 1 Mobile Usage ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 16 3.2.2 Computer Usage ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 18 3.2.3 Internet Usage ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 20 3.2.4 ID I Index ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 28 4. Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 32 5. References ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 33 6. Extra tables ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 34

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List of Tables Table 1. Household ICT access ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 14 Table 2. Reasons no Internet ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 15 Table 3. Individual Usage of Mobile Phones ................................ ................................ ............................... 16 Table 4. Computer Usage by Age and Gender ................................ ................................ ............................ 18 Table 5. Computer Activities by Gender ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 18 Table 6. Computer Activities by Age ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 20 Table 7. Internet Usage by Age and Gender ................................ ................................ ............................... 21 Table 8. Internet Usage Frequency by Gender ................................ ................................ ........................... 21 Table 9. Internet Usage Location by Gender ................................ ................................ .............................. 22 Table 10. Internet Usage Location by Age ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 23 Table 11. Online Activities by Gender ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 24 Table 12. Online Activities by Age ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 27 Table 13. Security Measures by Gender ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 27 Table 14. Internet Satisfaction Scores ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 27 Table 15. ICT Development Index Indicators definition and Scoring ................................ .......................... 29 Table 16. IDI Index ranking 2016 2017 for the Americas Region ................................ ............................... 31 Table 17. IDI score and Sub index by Region ................................ ................................ .............................. 31 Table 18. ICT Access Telephone connection ................................ ................................ ............................... 34 Table 19. Barriers to Internet Access ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 35 Table 20. Individual ICT Usage ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 37 Table 21. Internet Usage Location ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 39 Table 22. Computer Activities ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 41 Table 23. Use Internet at home ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 43 Table 24. IDI 2017 Rank ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 48 List of Figures Figure 1. Shared Computer Access ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 15 Figure 2. Mobile Usage by Education ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 17 Figure 3. Computer Activities by Age ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 19 Figure 4. Internet Usage Location by Age ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 23 Figure 5. IDI Index 2017 Map ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 30

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1. Introduction The Central Bureau of Statistics Curaao (CBS) conducted an ICT and Media Survey in 2017. This survey aims to measure the access to and the use of Information and Communication Technology including social media by the households and people of Curaao. ICT (Information and Communication Technology) refers to technological methodologies that enable communication. The level of integration of ICT technologies within a community is a good indication of the advancement and adaptation of society to the modern world. It is an integral part of the economic and social development of a country. It stimulates efficiency of economic and social processes and increases the knowled ge and information to which people, government, companies and other organizations have avail to. Research into the access and use of ICT is conducted international and is important in the development of policies with regards to technologic advances. The research shows areas where standards are lacking so that the right policies can be put into place. The norm thus set locally and internationally by comparing the access and use over time and benchmarked against other countries. The international benchmark has been set by the ITU (International Telecommunications Unit). ITU has a long history of collect ing, harmonizing and disseminating statistics on telecommunications and ICTs, and is recognized as the prime source of internationally comparable data in this field. They have developed a set of 50 indicators which are internationally comparable. Out of th ese indicators, CBS can calculate the ICT Development Index (IDI) used to rank countries on the level of ICT integration. The second objective of the ICT and Media Survey is measuring of the usage of media from people 6 years and older. Media has been de fined not only as traditional media but also the modern media such as internet and social media. This particular publication will discuss the ICT results.

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2 . Methodology A sample of 2,000 households was initially drawn for t he ICT and Media Survey . The sample was drawn randomly from a list of addresses received from the Civil Registry. A random drawing assures that each address has the same probability of being chosen. This sample was drawn on the assumption of a 25% non response. For fieldwork pu rposes, a non response is considered a household which did not complete the survey. However, d uring the fieldwork, which was originally scheduled for six weeks, the non response turned out to be higher than expected. To still ensure reliable results, an ad ditional 400 households were approached. At the end of the fieldwork, t he non response was 49.34% of which refusal was the major reason. The final response of 1,227 households gave us an error margin of 2.77 percent. The surveys were conducted by a team of 40 interviewers using Windows laptops running CSPro survey program. The questionnaire consisted of a household section and a personal section. The household section was to be answered by the head of the household or the reference pe rson. The reference person was defined as an adult who could take the responsibility of answering questions for the household. The reference person answered those indicators related to the household, whereas each person, 6 years and older, answered questi ons regarding their individual ICT and media usage. The questions in the h ousehold section are : Shared use of r adio Shared use of t elevision Shared use of fixed telephones Shared use of mobile telephones Shared use of computer Internet connection

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The qu estions in the p ersonal section are : Demographics Personal use of radio Personal use of television Personal use of newspaper Personal use of internet Personal use of computers Personal use of social media Media participation

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3 . Results This s ection highlights th e results of the ICT survey from a household and a private perspective. 3 .1 Household ICT Usage The ICT results have been divided into household usage and individual usage of information technology . In this section , we will show the househol d usage of ICT technology. The sub index 4 and 5 of the IDI index indicate the percentage of households using shared computer (sub index 4) and with access to internet (sub index 5) . The survey results show that 51.6 percent of the households of Curaao have a computer which everyone in the households have access to and can use. The percentage of households with shared internet acce ss is higher at 64.5 percent. Table 1. Household with shared ICT access Table 1 . Household ICT access From the data above (Table 1 ) it can be deduced that 35.5% of ho useholds do not have access to internet at home . Of those who do not have access more than half indicate that the main reason is the high cost of internet connection, followed by the high cost of computers. Nowadays computers and internet have become an important part of everyday life with the growing integration of social media, eBooks, and easy access to a vast array of knowledge. Despite the increasing dependency on internet and computers, there are households who do not have access to internet. Of these households n early thirty two percent indicate d that they do no t have internet access due to the high cost of the service and the hardware (Table 2 ) . Table 2 . Reason household does not have internet

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Table 2 . Reasons no Internet For this survey, computers have been defined as desktop computers, laptops, tablets or similar handheld devices. Households with shared computer usage are 51.6 percent. A shared computer is any device that can be accessed and used by each member of the hou sehold. This means that a computer can be present in a household but if it is not accessible to everyone in the household, it is not counted as a household computer. Figure 1 . Shared Computer Access 48.4% 51.6% Fig 1. Household Computer Access No Yes

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3 .2 Individual ICT Usage This section includes the ICT usage of individuals. 3 .2.1 Mobile U sage Overall there are 87.2 percent of the 6 years and older population that have a mobile phone. The male to female ratio is nearly identical . Differences between gender could be detected in those older than 64. In the older age range, females are less likely to have a mobile phone for individual use. Table 3. People using mobiles in the last three months by age and gender Male Female Total Table 3 . Individual Usage of Mobile Phones On an educational level, a higher education signifies a higher proportion of mobile individual usage (Figure 1 ) .

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Figure 2 . Mobile Usage by Education 48.10% 71.50% 94.50% 97.40% 0.00% 20.00% 40.00% 60.00% 80.00% 100.00% 120.00% Primary education or lower Lower secondary education Upper secondary education Tertiary education or higher Fig 2. Mobile usage

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3 .2.2 Computer U sage Computer usage o n an individual level are higher than on a household level. Table 4. People using computer in the last three months by age and gender Male Female Total Table 4 . Computer Usage by Age and Gender Of the 6 years and older population, 69.7 percent is using a computer. Usage of computers decrease s as age increases with only 16.5% of 75 and older population using a computer. Females are more likely to use computers between the age of 6 and 64. From the age of 65 males are more likely to have used a comp uter in the last three months. The use of computer can signify different level of intensity. The table below (Table 5 ) shows that for most activities, males and females behave similar. The activity with the biggest difference is installing new devices suc h as printers or modems and finding, downloading, installing and configuring software . Table 5 . List of computer activities by gender Male Female Table 5 . Computer Activities by Gender

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The younger generation of 15 to 24 year olds is more intensely engaged in all different computer activities. The more intense the knowledge of computers becomes, the proportion of those engaged with the activities becomes less. This is even more apparent in the older generation. They tend to copy files and use emails and leave the programming and installing of hardware and software to the younger generation. Figure 3 . Computer Activities by Age 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% 50.0% 60.0% 70.0% 80.0% 90.0% 100.0% Fig 3. Computer Activities by Age 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-74 75+

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Table 5 . List of computer activities by age 15 24 25 34 35 44 45 54 55 64 65 74 75+ Table 6 . Computer Activities by Age 3. 2.3 Internet Usage The percentage of 6 years and older who have used the internet in the last three months is 68.1 percent (Table 7 ) . A similar trend shows that 15 24 year olds are the most involved with the internet and the 75 years and older are less involved with the internet . Even the age distribution is quite similar with the females more involved, except for the older generation where there is a higher share of males older than 65 using the internet than the females.

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Table 7. People using internet in the last three months by age and gender Male Female Total Table 7 . Internet Usage by Age and Gender Table 8. Frequency use Internet by gender At least once a day At least once a week but not daily Less than once a week Do not know Table 8 . Internet Usage Frequency by Gender

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The frequency of using internet (Table 8 ) is for most people at least once a day with 92.8 percent using the internet daily. Looking at age and gender, we can see some differences in the 5 5 and older population and the 6 to 14 year olds. The female 75 and older group has a larger portion (25.0%) who use the internet at least once a week compared to all other groups. The male 6 to 14 year olds are the group who have the smallest portion who use the internet daily (47.8%). Internet can be very mobile. It ha s come a long way from the dial in modems as internet is now even available for free to the public in town. T he percentages presented in the table below are from those who have used the internet in the last three months. The majority uses the internet at h ome, with commercial establishment a distant second. Table 9. Location where internet is used by gender Male Female Total Table 9 . Internet Usage Location by Gender The home is the single location which is constant amongst all gender and ages. Differences in age can be seen when the location concerns using the internet at someone , mobile, or at an educational institution (Figure 4 ) .

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Figure 4 . Internet Usage Location by Age Table 10. Location where internet is used by age 06 14 15 24 25 34 35 44 45 54 55 64 65 74 75+ Table 10 . Internet Usage Location by Age 06-14 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-74 75+ Fig 4. Internet Usage Location by Age At a commercial establishment (paid use at internet cafs, hotels, airports etc.) At an educational institution At home Moving from place to place, not at a fixed location (mobile) At a public facility (such as public library, community center, McDonald's, Starbucks etc.) At work Other location

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From those who use the internet, their activities while online were catalogued. The activities ranged from minor involvement with the internet to deep involvement such as programming and hosting websites. Table 11. Online Activities by Gender Male Female Total Table 11 . Online Activities by Gender

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The online activity performed by 81.9 percent of those using the internet is talking to friends and/or family followed by sending or receiving emails (64.4%) and making calls over the internet (61.4%). These activities are all part of personal interactions . The least performed activities are making doctor appointments (2.7%), taking part in online consultations or voting online to decide on social or political issues (4.3%) and taking a formal course online (5.0%) . All these fall in the category of Interac tions with organizations. Knowing this, raises the question whether these activities are perceived as too impersonal or that awareness of the possibility is limited. Table 1 2 shows that there are some activities that are age related, and might even be typi cal of different generations, such as Streaming and downloading, listening to web radio, watching web TV, using space on the internet to store documents and pictures, using software on the internet to process text and documents and purchasing or ordering p roducts online.

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Table 12. Online Activities by Age 15 24 25 34 35 44 45 54 55 64 65 74 75+

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Table 12 . Online Activities by Age With the increased use of internet, online fraud, identity theft and viruses are a true threat to households (Table 1 3 ) . The usage of protection is thus an indication of the extent to which households are security aware and how internet savvy the population is. Table 13. Security Measures Male Female Total Table 13 . Security Measures by Gender The table above shows that the use of anti virus programs with 47.4 percent is the most used method for online protection with regularly updates of the applications a close second with 44.5 percent. The least use d method is regular making password changes which is one of the best protection methods. Overall satisfaction with inte rnet (Table 15 ) experience on the island shows that 70 percent are satisfied with the internet speed and 71.5 percent are satisfied with the monthly cost of the internet. Nearly 80 percent (79.8%) are satisfied with the reliability of the internet. Table 1 4 . Score of satisfaction with internet Average score Disagree Neutral Agree Table 14 . Internet Satisfaction Scores

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3 .2.4 IDI Index The United Nations International Communications Institute ( ITU ) has developed a unique benchmark of the level of ICT development in countries across the world. Th e ICT Development Index (IDI Index) combines eleven indicators on ICT access, use and skills, capturing key aspects of ICT development in one measure that allows for compar isons across countries and over time. The IDI considers three different stages in its model. Stage 1 is ICT readiness which reflects the level of networked infrastructure and access to ICTs; Stage 2 is ICT intensity which reflects the level of use of ICTs in the society; and Stage 3 is the ICT impact reflecting the results / outcomes of more efficient and effective ICT use. Table 1 5 . ICT Development Index Indicators definition and Scoring Definition Weight

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Table 1 5 . ICT Development Index Indicators definition and Scoring Table 15 . ICT Development Index Indicators definition and Scoring

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The IDI is a standardized measurement of the digital savviness within a country and it allows government, agencies and international organizations a tool to compare a country with itself and to other countries. The ICT Development Index (IDI) has a maximum score of 10. Internationally, the highest scoring country , Ireland, in 2017 had a score of 8. 98 (http://www.itu.int/net4/ITU D/idi/2017/). Curaao recorded an IDI of 6.9. On the current list, this means that we are in the 48 th spot. The make up of the score is 2.26 out of 4 on ICT Access, 3.17 out of 4 on ICT use, and 1.51 out of 2 on ICT skills. This means that the area where we can gain the most benefit of improve ment is ICT Access. Figure 5 . IDI Index 2017 Map In the Caribbean, the highest scoring Caribbean island is Barbados with an IDI index score of 7.31 (Table 16) . The index score of 6.9 4 puts Curaao in the 4 th spot in the Caribbean region. Even though this is in the top 5, there is still room for improvement. Table 1 6 . IDI Index ranking 2016 2017 for the Cari b bean Region

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Table 16 . IDI Index ranking 2016 2017 for the Americas Region On a district basis, the IDI score has small differences. The region with the lowest IDI score is Cent er . This score is lower due to a lower ICT access score . The ICT access reflects Table 1 7 . IDI score by zone IDI score ICT access ICT use ICT skills East Center East of Center West of Center West All zones Maximum score Table 17 . IDI score and Sub index by Region

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4. Conclusion Gender and age show differences on ICT usage and integration. Younger people are more involved than older people and males are more involved than females. This phenomenon is not unusual as many countries have discovered the same trend. Research shows that this might be due to the type of work experienced by the males as opposed to females. It is more likely that males needed more digital skills in their employment than females. Whilst computer and internet usage is not as high in private households, the data shows that computers and internet are used in o ther locations. Internet usage is high with social media one of the activities most used. Lower usage is recorded in the area of interactions involving payments and obtaining information. An area for improvement in the IDI index is ICT access. This area c overs the availability of internet and computer and bandwidth. The data shows that there is room for improvement in these indicators.

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5. References ICT Development Index 2017 , http://www.itu.int/net4/ITU D/idi/2017/index.html#idi2017rank tab ICT Development Index , https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ICT_Development_Index The ICT Development Index (IDI): conceptual framework and methodology , https://www.itu.int/en/ITU D/Statistics/Pages/publications/mis2017/methodology.aspx Handbook for the collection of adm inistrative data on Telecommunications , ICT International Telecommunication Union , 2011 Manual for Measuring ICT Access and Use by Households and Individuals , International Telecommunication Union , 2014 Measuring the Information Society Report , Internation al Telecommunication Union , 2016 https://techsenior.eu/older men vs older women/ Online activities of Canadian boomers and seniors, https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/11 008 x /2009002/article/10910 eng.htm

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6 . Extra tables Table 18 . ICT Access Telephone connection

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Table 19 . Barriers to Internet Access

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Age Sex Highest education level Labour force status Occupation

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Table 20 . Individual ICT Usage

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Age Sex Highest education level Labour force status

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Occupation Table 21 . Internet Usage Location

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Age Sex Highest education level Labour force status

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Occupation Table 22 . Computer Activities

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Age Sex Highest education level Labour force status Occupation

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Table 23 . Use Internet at home

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Country IDI 2017 Value IDI 2016 Rank IDI 2016 Value Rank Change

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Table 24 . IDI 2017 Rank