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Curacao Environmental Statistics Compendium 2017

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1 CURAÇAO ENVIRONMENTAL STATISTICS COMPENDIUM 201 7 Willemstad , Januari 2019

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2 Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek Curaçao Address: WTC Building, Piscadera Bay z/n (first floor) Phone: (+599 9) 839 2300 Email: info@cbs.cw Website: www.cbs.cw Website: digitallibrary.cbs.cw Facebook: cbscur Copyright © Willemstad, Central Bureau of Statistics, 2019 The contents of this publicat ion may be quoted, if the source is mentioned accurately and clearly ISBN: 978 99904 5 169 6

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3 Preface The Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) of Curaçao is very pleased to release its third issue of the Environment Statistics Compendium. As has been said in the former publications, it is the intention to update the Compendium annually. A compendium is a co llection of information in which a brief summary is presented on environmental Statistics. The data collected is based on the principles of the Curaçaoan adjusted version of the Core Set of the FDES, the Framework for the Development of Environmental Stati stics of the U.N. The Core Set contains the most important environment statistics to describe statistical topics thus providing guidance to environmental programs and policies. The publication reflects the collation of existing CBS data sources and adminis trative sources of government and non government entities. Although it was not possible to receive all the data needed and that the CBS still has some data gaps to deal with, the Bureau gratefully acknowledges the support of all the experts and stakeholde rs who were committed to provide the statistical data and information needed. Our aim is to continue to issue this publication annually. In principle, the data presented here cover the years 2010 to 2017. This publication is written by Mr. Chris Jager, se nior statistician Business Statistics and Environmental Statistics. Drs. Sean de Boer, Director Cover photo: Playa Kanoa, C. Jager

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4 Contents Preface ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 3 List of tables ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 5 List of figu res ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 6 List of Acronyms ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ . 7 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 10 Methodology ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 11 1. Environmental Conditions and Quality ................................ ................................ ..................... 14 Topic 1.1.1. Atmosphere, climate and weather ................................ ................................ .. 15 Topic 1.1.3. Geological and geographical information ................................ ..................... 17 Topic 1.2.2. Ecosystems and Biodiversity ................................ ................................ ............ 23 Topic 1.3.1. Air quality ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 31 To pic 1.3.3. Marine water quality ................................ ................................ ......................... 35 2. Environmental Resources and their use ................................ ................................ ................ 37 Topic 2.1.1. Stocks and changes of non energy mineral resources ................................ 38 Topic 2.2.2. Production and use of energy ................................ ................................ .......... 38 Topic 2.6.2. Abstraction and use of water ................................ ................................ ........... 42 3. Residuals ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 44 ................................ ..................... 45 Topic 3.2.2. Collection and treatment of wastewater ................................ ........................ 47 Topic 3.3.2. Management of Waste ................................ ................................ ....................... 48 4. Extreme Events and Disasters ................................ ................................ ................................ . 51 Topic 4.1. Natural Extreme Events and Disasters ................................ ............................. 52 Topic 4.2. Technological Disasters ................................ ................................ ...................... 54 5. Human Settlements and Environmental Health ................................ ................................ .. 57 Topic 5.1.1. Urban and rural population ................................ ................................ ............. 58 Topic 5.1.2. Access to water, sanitation and energy ................................ .......................... 59 Topic 5.1.5. Environmental concerns specific to urban settlements .............................. 61

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5 Topic 5.2.1. Airborne diseases and conditions ................................ ................................ ... 62 Topic 5.2.2. Water related diseases and conditions ................................ ........................... 62 Topic 5.2.3. Vector borne diseases ................................ ................................ ........................ 63 6. Environment Protection and Management ................................ ................................ ........... 65 Topic 6.1.1. Government protection expenditures ................................ ............................ 66 7. Tourism ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 67 Bibliography ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 76 Contributors ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 78 List of tables Table 1: Average temperature Table 2: Average maximum temperature Table 3: Average minimum temperature Table 4: Average monthly rainfall (in mm) Table 5: Number of rain days Table 6: Threatened species Table 7: Fauna species Table 8: Protected areas, incl. marine area Table 9: Nature parks without formal legal protection Table 12: Marine water quality Table 13: Stocks of mineral resources, limestone Table 14: Production and use of energy Table 15: Product mix electricity, installed capacity Table 16: Abstraction of water Table 17: GHG's: CO2 and CH4 Table 18: Emissions and benchmarks GHG's 2015 Table 19: Sewage Treatment Plants, capacity Table 20: Municipal waste collected Table 21: Population Curaçao 2000 2016 Table 22: Occupied living accommodations by type of water supply Table 23: Occupied living accommodations by type of sanitation Table 24: Type of electric supply

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6 Table 25: Number of motor vehicles Table 26: Vector borne diseases List of figures Figure 1. The FDES components Figure 2: Geological map Curaçao Figure 3: Curaçao Vegetation map Figure 4: Coral cover Curaçao reefs Figure 6: SO 2 and TSP, Beth Chaim Figure 7: SO 2 and PM10, Kas Chikitu Figure 8: Installed capacity in MW Figure 9: Relative share of emissions Figure 10: contributions to waste.

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7 List of Acronyms CARICOM Caribbean Community CaCO 3 Calcium Carbonate, CARMABI Caribbean Research and Management of Biodiversity CBS Central Bureau of Statistics CH 4 Methane CIC Caribbean Incineration Company CO 2 Carbon dioxide CRC Curaçao Recycling Company CRED Center for Resea rch on the Epidemiology of Disaster CRU Curaçao Refinery Utilities CTO Caribbean Tourism Organization DNA D eoxyriboNucleic Acid FDES Framework for the Development for Environment Statistics GGD Geneeskundige en Gezondheidsdienst Green House Gasses IFO Industrial Fuel Oil IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ISO International Organization for Standardization IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature Kton 1000 ton kWh kilo Watt hour MW Mega Watt MDG Millennium Development Goal

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8 NGO Non Governmental Organization NO x Nitrogen Oxide PM10 Particulate matter ; 10 micrometers or less PO 4 Phosphate SIDS Small Island Developing States SEEA System of Environmental Economic Accounting SNA System of National Accounts SO 2 Sulphur Dioxide TAC Thierry Apoteker Consulting TIR Tourism Intensity Rate TSP Total Suspended Particulates UNEP United Nations Environment Programm e UNSD United Nations Statistical Department WHO W orld Health Organization WMO World Meteorological Organization

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10 I ntroduction The demand for environment statistics is increasing in accordance with continuing environmental challenges faced by modern societies such as population pressure, energy issues, sustainable development and climate change. The environment is ever more presen t in public policies and development plans. Also in the Caribbean with it s many islands and Small Island Developing States ( SIDS ) and so, also in Curaçao , with its high population density, unsustainable demands on solid waste infrastructure, energy intensive and costly water , a high dependency on imported fossil fuels and a refinery which is struggling with modern environmental requirements. The recognition that human well being and development depends on the enviro nment , has led to an increasing emphasis on environment and sustainability concerns (e.g. the National Development Plan Curaçao 2015) on which decisions and actions need to be taken. Paramount to these actions is the regular production of environment stati stics of the highest quality. These statistics portray key information about the state of the environment and its changes through time. Furthermore , they give information to organizations, students and our society and can be used as input and support for fact based policymaking. Like in other developing countries and SIDS , environment statistics is a new and emerging domain , which is typically endowed with limited resources (technical, financial and human) and is challenged by a developing institutional set up and inter institutional coordination. This third Compendium 2017 is structured in 7 sections which include: 1. Enviro nmental conditions and quality, 2. Environmental resources and their use, 3. Residuals and waste, 4. Extreme events and disasters, 5. Human settlements and environmental health, 6. Environment protection and management, 7. Tourism.

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11 Methodology Environment statistics give us information about the state and changes of environmental conditions, the quality and availability of environmental resources, the impact of human activities and natural events on the environment, the impact of changing environmental conditions, as well as the social actions and economic measures taken by societies . This to avoid or mitigate these impacts and to restore and maintain the capacity of the environment to provide the services that are essential for life and human wellbeing. Environment st atistics thus cover a wide range of information. Their sources are dispersed over a variety of organizations and data producers and numerous methods are applied for their compilation. To effectively produce environment statistics, specific statistical and environmental expertise, knowledge, institutional development and adequate resources are necessary. Like many countries, Curaçao is limited in it s organizational, t echnical and financial capacity and has to deal with the challenge of cooperation and data gaps. T herefore , environment statistics require a proper framework to guide this development. For this reason the FDES and especially the Core Set were chosen to serve as a good tool for the CBS in order to set up and enhance these statistics. T he FD ES is a multi purpose statistical framework that is comprehensive in nature and marks out the scope of environment statistics. It is devel oped by the Statistical Department of the United Nations (UN SD ) , first published in 1984 and revised in 2013. It provi des a structure to guide the collection and compilation of environment statistics and brings data together from various relevant areas and sources. The objective of the Core Set of environment statistics of the FDES is to serve as a limited set of environ ment statistics that are of high priority and relevance to 1 environment statistics composed of three levels, according to the level of relevance, availability and meth odological development of these statistics. The Core Set consists of six fundamental components used as paragraphs), that follow the FDES conceptual framework. The first component, Environmental conditions and quality , brings together statistics related

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12 to the conditions and quality of the natural environment and their changes. The second component, Environmental resources and their use , groups together statistics related to availability and use of environmental resour ces. The third component , Residuals , includes statistics related to the discharge of residuals from production and consumption processes like emissions and waste. Statistics related to Disasters and extreme events , both natural and technological, and their impacts are covered by the fourth component. The fifth component brings together statistics related to Human settlements and environmental health . The sixth component, Environment protection, management and engagement , groups statistics relevant to societ al responses and economic measures aimed at protecting the environment and managing environmental resources. Environmental conditions and quality ( c omponent 1) are at the cente r of the FDES. As depicted in Figure 1, all six components are intrinsically re lated to each other. The dotted lines separating the components are an indication of the continuous interactions among them. These interactions are between and among all the components of the FDES. Figure 1. The FDES components During a CARICOM workshop in April 2014 it became clear that it is necessary for Curaçao , like for other Ca ribbean countries, to make Tourism a 7 th additional c omponent to the Core Set of the FDES framework . This in accordance with the

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13 CARICOM indicators and the high social and economical importance of tourism in Caribbean countries. I nformation about our environment is developing and thus the availability of environmental information will increase in the near future . The dissemination of info rmation and regular publication of this compendium will enhance the needed cooperation, quality and completeness of environmental statistics in Curaçao .

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14 1 . Environmental Conditions and Quality Component 1 of the Core Set of the FDES includes statistics about meteorological, geographical, biological as well as physical and chemical characteristics of the environment and their change over time. Many of these natural conditions change very slowly as a result of natural processes or human infl uence. On the other hand, other natural conditions can show immediate and dramatic effects. Importantly, changes in environmental conditions and quality are the result of combined and accumulated impacts of natural and human processes and activit ies. Lago Disparsé, Malpais Ph oto: C. Jager

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15 Topic 1.1.1. Atmosphere, climate and weather This topic covers data on atmospheric and climatic conditions over time. Information on weather describes the way that the atmosphere is behaving on the island in the short term and is record ed by the Meteorological Department . Climate is determined by long term weather conditions and includ e s aspects such as temperature and precipitation. Curaçao has a semi arid climate with irregular and sometimes heavy rainfall with a distinguishable dry and rainy season. The dry season runs from February through June, whereas the rainy season starts in September and ends in January. The months of July and Augus t can be considered as transitional months. During the rainy season the rain showers occur usually during the early morning or early to late evening hours. T he island is characterized by warm tropical temperatures with the highest mean temperatures occurr ing in September , which can be more than 33°C . Mean minimum temperatures can be as low as 23 24°C in December and January. The seawater around the islands averages around 27°C and are coldest (average 25.9°C ) around February March and warmest (average 28. 2°C) around September October. The skies are in general mostly clear to partly cloudy. Temperature in degrees centigrade Curaçao Int. Airport Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec YEAR Table 1: Average temperature 1) 1981 2010 2) 26.5 26.6 27.1 27.6 28.2 28.5 28.4 28.7 28.9 28.5 27.9 27.0 27.8 2010 27.4 27.1 28.1 28.4 29.2 28.6 29.1 29.6 28.5 28.4 27.1 26.6 28.2 2011 26.7 26.5 25.5 26.8 27.6 28.4 28.1 28.8 28.6 28.0 27.9 27.0 27.5 2012 26.1 26.3 26.6 27.4 28.3 28.3 28.6 28.8 29.0 27.8 26.8 26.1 27.5 2013 26.6 27.1 27.6 27.9 28.5 28.8 28.8 29.1 29.5 29.1 27.7 26.6 28.1 2014 25.7 26.7 27.1 27.6 27.8 28.5 28.5 29.0 29.2 29.0 28.2 27.8 27.9 2015 27.1 27.4 27.2 27.8 27.9 28.2 28.4 29.1 29.8 29.3 28.3 27.7 28.2 2016 26.6 27.1 27.7 28.3 28.9 29.2 29.2 29.5 29.3 29.4 28.2 27.3 28.4 2017 26.2 26.7 27.2 28.1 28.5 28.6 28.8 29.2 29.8 29 28.4 27.5 28.2 5 year mean 26.4 27.0 27.4 27.9 28.3 28.7 28.7 29.2 29.5 29.2 28.2 27.4 28.2 YEAR

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16 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec YEAR Table 2: Average maximum temperature 1981 2010 2) 29.9 30.1 30.7 31.4 32.0 32.1 32.1 32.7 32.8 32.1 31.1 30.3 31.4 2010 31.2 30.7 31.7 31.8 32.6 30.4 32.3 32.8 31.7 31.4 29.8 29.4 31.3 2011 29.6 29.8 28.2 29.8 30.4 31.8 31.4 32.3 32.0 31.1 30.8 29.4 30.6 2012 29.1 29.7 29.5 30.9 31.4 32.0 31.9 32.0 32.6 31.2 29.8 29.0 30.8 2013 29.8 30.7 30.9 31.3 31.8 32.1 32.2 32.6 33.0 32.4 30.7 29.7 31.4 2014 29.5 30.2 30.5 30.7 30.8 31.4 31.9 32.7 32.7 32.5 31.2 31.0 31.3 2015 30.6 31.2 30.7 31.3 31.2 31.3 31.9 32.6 33.6 33.1 31.4 30.4 31.6 2016 30.1 30.7 31.2 31.7 32.5 33.0 32.8 33.4 33.1 33.0 31.2 30.0 31.9 2017 29.0 30.0 30.5 31.5 32.1 32.1 32.3 32.9 34.0 32.7 31.5 30.5 31.6 5 year mean 29.8 30.6 30.8 31.3 31.7 32.0 32.2 32.8 33.3 32.7 31.2 30.3 31.6 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec YEAR Table 3: Average minimum temperature 1981 2010 2) 24.4 24.5 24.9 25.6 26.3 26.5 26.1 26.5 26.6 26.2 25.6 24.9 25.7 2010 25.3 25.2 26.3 26.3 27.0 27.1 26.8 27.4 25.7 25.7 24.5 24.2 26.0 2011 24.4 24.4 23.5 24.9 25.5 26.2 26.1 26.2 26.2 25.6 25.2 24.6 25.2 2012 23.7 23.9 24.9 25.2 26.3 26.4 26.4 26.6 26.6 26.3 24.4 23.5 25.4 2013 24.3 24.9 25.8 25.9 26.3 26.8 26.8 26.8 26.9 27.0 25.2 24.1 25.9 2014 23.4 24.9 25.1 25.9 26.0 26.8 26.5 26.7 27.0 26.7 24.7 25.6 25.8 2015 24.6 25.3 24.9 25.9 26.2 26.5 26.4 27.0 27.7 27.2 26.2 26.1 26.2 2016 24.5 25.3 25.7 26.5 27.1 27.2 27.1 27.5 27.1 26.9 25.7 24.9 26.3 2017 23.9 24.1 25.2 26.2 26.4 26.4 26.4 26.9 27.2 26.5 26.6 25.2 25.9 5 year mean 24.1 24.9 25.3 26.1 26.4 26.7 26.6 27.0 27.2 26.9 25.7 25.2 26.0 Jan 1) Average of daily 24 hourly observations

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17 Rainfall Curaçao Int. Airport Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec YEAR Table 4: Average monthly rainfall (in mm) 1981 2010 1) 46 29 14 19 21 22 41 40 49 102 122 96 601 2010 142 0 1 22 12 75 44 5 122 154 298 217 1092 2011 105 15 47 9 53 18 17 7 26 68 168 96 629 2012 58 44 32 15 19 4 18 19 7 79 65 80 440 2013 19.4 4.2 1.3 12.2 12.9 15.0 13.1 40.7 124.6 18.7 181.3 85.7 529 2014 29.0 11.0 0.4 0.6 5.9 7.1 15.3 36.3 17.3 55.2 146.0 60.2 384 2015 37.7 15.4 62.4 15.7 3.4 2.1 16.1 6.3 10.2 28.2 131.1 11.8 340 2016 8.0 4.3 5.0 2.0 2.2 10.2 28.2 3.0 52.8 36.9 282.3 106.1 541 2017 96.8 11.1 24.6 6.7 29.3 32.7 33.5 32.4 23.6 69.2 78.8 79.9 519 5 year mean 38.2 9.2 18.7 7.4 10.7 13.4 21.2 23.7 45.7 41.6 163.9 68.7 463 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec YEAR Table 5: Number of rain days 1981 2010 1) 8 5 3 7 2 3 6 4 5 8 11 11 73 2010 1 0 0 3 3 7 7 2 9 14 20 17 83 2011 9 6 4 2 7 5 1 1 4 14 11 17 81 2012 14 10 0 4 5 2 1 3 4 6 6 8 63 2013 5 2 1 2 3 4 4 5 7 5 10 12 60 2014 9 3 0 0 1 1 5 5 4 6 15 10 59 2015 10 3 8 1 1 1 3 2 3 4 10 3 49 2016 2 1 1 1 1 2 5 1 7 5 16 14 56 2017 13 2 7 1 3 8 6 6 3 7 4 17 77 5 year mean 8 2 3 1 2 3 5 4 5 5 11 11 60 Source: Meteorological Department Curaçao Topic 1.1.3. Geological and geog raphical information This topic includes general geological and topographic information, presenting statistics that inform on the extent and characteristics of territory and relief. These characteristics typically change s lowly over time and as such, are normally static. Because of their nature, these geological and geographical data are often presented in the form of maps.

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18 Shown are two maps; a geological map of C ARMABI (figure 2) and a vegetation map of C.E. Beers et al 1 (figure 3) . Concerning geographical information it can be said that the countries territory is 444 km2. The total surface of coral reefs is 16 km2 (van Duyl, 1985) and the mangroves have a surface of less than 0.6 km2 ( http://www.unesco.org/csi/pub/paper s/pors.htm) The geological history of Curaçao began about 90 million years ago. The island as we know it, is basically a snapshot in geological time. Four distinct rock groups represent the geological structure of the island. Lava formation, the Knip Group, the Middle Curaçao Formation and Limestone (source: C ARMABI ) . The Lava Formation consists of volcanic rocks or basalt and represents the oldest geological feature on the island. The basalt is locally at least 5km thick suggesting started that deep below the ocean surface and is geologically The Knip Group overlies the volcanic sequence, hence is a little younger. The significant difference in appearance with the older volcanic rocks is th e distinct layering. The Mid Curaçao Formation originated through a reorganization of the geological features that were formed thus far, some 65 milli on years ago. A series of endogenous forces, likely earthquakes, but also the slow rising of the island ( 0.25 0.50mm per year) associated with tectonic movements, resulted in sequential sand and rock deposits in trenches or valleys on the island or on the slopes of the island Limestone Formations ion and the limestone Terraces that were formed 5 million years ago . N o significant rock formation occu r red on Curaçao between the formation of the Mid Curaçao Formation and the recent Limestone Formations. Five million years ago, the rising of Curaçao resulted East side of present day Curaçao respectively. Coral reef formation occurred in the shallow waters around these islands. These oldest reef formations are still vi sible as 1 C . E . Beers, J. de Freitas, P. Ketner, " Landscape ecological vegetation map of the island of Cura ao, Netherlands Antilles

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19 the sloping limestone mountains along the Leeward shore. The Limestone Terraces then arose as coral growth tracked the variable sea l evels associated with glacial n years ago. The subsequent glacial period caused sea terrace (1 million year s ago) on which Tera Kora is built. Two younger terraces were formed 0.5 million and 30.000 years ago, the latter now forming the Hato P lain. The most recent glacial period occur r ed 2 0.000 years ago when a reef was formed that 80m r eferred to as the Figure 2: Geological map Curaçao . Source: C ARMABI 2014 The vegetation of the island can be generally characterized as dry woodland vegetation. The vegetation map (figure 3) is based on a landscape and vegetation survey from 1988 to 1990, scale 1:50.000. It consisted of interpretations of aerial photographs and fie ldwork. According to the Landscape ecological vegetation map of Beers, de Freitas and Ketner, t he island is subdivided into 7 main landscapes .

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20 E ach in turn is divided into sub landscapes, which are characterized by terrain features and plant communities. T he different landscapes comprises 21 different vegetation types, ranging from dry climatic evergreen types to seasonal desert like scrublands and edaphic vegetation types, such as mangroves areas near saliñas. Almost everywhere i n Curaçao the vegetation i s (over)grazed, particularly around the villages. Grazing has a major impact on the natural vegetation, resulting in a reduction of the vegetation cover and dominance of weedy species. A large area around Willemstad has hardly any spo ts left with natural vegetation , sufficiently large to be mapped. The area has been mapped as urban / industrial / agricultural, which points to an enormous expansion of human activities, such as urbanization, industrialization and development of tourism. On many parts of the island these trends were and are destroying, fragmenting and polluting most of the remaining wilderness sites. Curaçao has several sites which have an exceptional conservation value. Besides the Christoffel National Park these are : the plantations of Knip, Jeremi and St. H ironymus, the coastal terraces between Hato and Boca Ascension, the plantation of Malpais and surrounding properties, the fresh water basin of Muizenberg, the limestone terrace landscape and coastal zone stretch ing from Caracas Bay to Oostpunt, the saliñas of Jan Thiel and St. Marie, the main mangrove areas and the north coast reefs from Playa K anoa to Oostpunt including the St. Joris Bay.

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21 Sali ña S t. Marie photo: Stichting Uniek Curaçao

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22 Figure 3: Curaçao Vegetation map 1997

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23 Topic 1.2.2. Ecosystems and Biodiversity The topic of ecosystems and biodiversity covers physical quantitative and qualitative inform ation about the main ecosystems, including the extent, characteristics and biological components (biodiversity) of these ecosystems. The extent and conditions of the ecosystems determine the ir capacity to produce ecosystem services. The reefs are an important ecosystem and are subjected to a variety of human related stressors like overfishing, coastal development, (underground) sewage discharge, chemical pollution , artificial beach construction and a lack of enforcement of (outdated) legislation . Statistics on biological components of ecosystems provide information on the conditions of plants, animals and living habitats, e.g. species at risk of extinction . Although information about ecosystems in Curaçao is developing and therefore will be increasingly available, using it for statistics describing ecosystems is still rather infrequent and non systematic. There are many threatened and endangered species on Curaçao (table 6) , but information on their abundance, critical habitats and population trends is scarce or absent for most species. To give an impression of the degree of extinction, in the Dutch Caribbean more than 25 shark and ray species have been documented. Populations of most species has unquestionably declined dramatically from former times 2 . In the 1940s different writers recount the high abundance of large fishes in the near shore waters surrounding Curaçao. Sharks were observed practically every snorkeling trip, whereas today they are only sporadically encountered during dives (A. Debrot, M. Vermey et.al). Also turtles have bec ome endangered. Once amazingly abundant, Caribbean sea turtles have seen a rapid decline. Scientists estimate that in the 17 th century over 90 million Green Turtles swam in the Caribbean seas. Today the number is estimated at 300,000 (0,33%). Hawksbill hav e plunged from an estimated 11 million to 30.000 (0,27%). Both Green Turtles and Hawksbills nest on Curaçao and can be seen along 2 Waitt Institute , May 2018 .

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24 the entire coast and Klein Curaçao . Fishing gear entanglement, illegal harvesting, coastal development and marine pollution ar e still putting serious pressure on turtle populations. Ecosystems Table 6: Threatened species Critically endangered, IUCN red list 3 Fish Goliath grouper Black grouper Sharks and rays smalltooth, wide sawfish largetooth sawfish Reptiles Hawksbill turtle Leatherback turtle Corals Staghorn coral Elkhorn coral Endangered, IUCN red list Fish Nassau grouper Red porgy Sharks and rays Barndoor skate Winter skate Great hammerhead Scalloped hammerhead Mammals Coalfish whale Blue whale Fin whale North Atlantic right whale Reptiles Loggerhead turtle Green turtle Corals Box fire coral Mountainous star coral 3 The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is the global authority on the status of the natural world and the measures to safeguard it and by doing so; enable human progress, economic development and nature conservation.

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25 Threatened species, CARMABI Birds Caribbean Coot Scarlet ibis West Indian whistling duck Fulvous whistling duck American flamingo Mammals Curaç ao White tail Deer (bats) Glossophaga longirostris elongata L. curasoe Mormoops megalophylla intermedia Natalis tumidirostris Myotis nesopolus Pteronotus davy Noctilio leporinus Fish Queen triggerfish Lancer dragonet Lined seahorse Yellowedge grouper Snowy grouper Atlantic white marlin Hogfish Mutton snapper Cubera snapper Blue marlin Giant manta Tarpon Yellowmouth grouper Cano toadfish Bigeye tuna Atlantic bluefin tuna Sharks & rays Bigeye thresher Whale shark Reptiles Lesser Antillian iguana Green iguana Invertebrates Lace corals Black corals Stony corals Queen conch Spin y lobster

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26 Source: CARMABI and Waitt Institute Biodiversity is the variety of life, species and ecosystems. It boosts ecosystem productivity and is strongly related to e.g. health, agriculture and natural resources . In addition, the richer the diversity of life, the greater the opportunity for medical discoveries, economic development and adaptive responses to challenges as climate change. The topic of biodiversity incl udes statistics on the diversity of flora and fauna species, on protected areas and on protected flora and fauna species. The typical themes here include the number and population trends of known species of flora and fauna, terrestrial as well as marine. The flora of Curaç ao has 541 spec ies of which 5 are endemic. This is comparable to other arid and semi arid areas in the Caribbean (DCNA, 2013). Some of the species of foreign origin, imported or escaped from cultivation, have become invasive by turning into notorious weeds that out compe te other species and change the ecosystem. Biodiversity Tab l e 7: Fauna species: number: B irds 223 scleractinian corals 69 S ponges 88 marine polychaetes 132 marine amphipods 20 marine fishes 611 freshwater fishes 20 M ammals 3 R eptiles 3 Source: CARMABI , 2015. km2 Ramsar 4 ; since 2013 4 The Ramsar Convention , formally, the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance , is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands , recognizing the

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27 Table 8: Protected areas, incl. marine area Northwest Curaç ao 24.4 Muizenberg (wetland) 0.65 Rif Sint Marie (wetland) 6.7 Malpais/Sint Michiel (wetland) 11 .0 Northwest Curaçao is an important bird area and comprises a great variety of ecosystems such as coral reefs, coastal lagoons with sea grass beds and mangroves, freshwater dams and natural springs. This Ramsar site includes parts of Shete Boka and Christoffel Park. Some of the different caves are important as nesting and roosting sites for rare and endemic bat species. Furthermore , Indian drawings can be found estimated to be more than 5 , 000 years old. Muizenberg is an important bird area and comprises an intermittent shallow lake created by the damming of a stream that drains the surrounding low hills. The Muize nberg dam has a capacity of 650, 000 m3 and is the largest freshwater reservoir on the island. Rif St. M arie is a relatively undisturbed important bird area , especially flamingoes and several water birds, and compr ises a salt marsh. The area is currently used for recreational purposes like hiking, biking and guided eco tours. Malpais comprises two freshwater lakes and a lagoon connected to a bay with coral reefs. The area provides refugee for many birds. Klein Curaçao is declared as Ramsar site per September 2018. The eastern shore of this small island features a near pristine coral reef system that supports an enormous diversity of marine organisms. This reef system is one of the few remaining healthy examples and is representative of Caribbean reef communities in general. The island is of global importance for its breeding population of the least tern Stern a Antillarum , while a 600 metre stretch of sandy beach is the most important nesting area within Curaçao for turtles. km2 fundamental ecological functions of wetlands and their economic, cultural, scientific, and recreational value. It is named after the city of Ramsar in Iran , where the Convention was signed in 1971 .

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28 Tab l e 9: Nature parks without formal legal protection Christoffel Park (since 1978) 23 Curaçao Marine Park (since 1983) 10.4 Shete Boka (since 1994) 4.7 The Christoffel Park has the highest diversity of flora and fauna on the ABC islands that are otherwise rare on and endemic to the island. Rare species include a population of about 250 individuals of the White tailed deer, an endemic sub species. The Christoffel Park also ha rbors vegetation types that are only found in the Park. The Curaçao Marine Park (or Underwater Park) is loc ated in the south eastern part of the island and covers 12 km of coastline. It is harboring pristine fringing coral reefs, sea grass beds, mangroves and a high diversity of fish species (some 350 fishes). The Shete Boka Park designated to pr turtle nesting sit es. Curaç ao is surrounded by 15.7 km 2 of fringing reefs and though threatened, the island still harbors some of the best coral ecosystems in the region 5 the five richest hotspots for biodiversity and endemism on earth (i.e. the Caribb ean) and represents a hotspot center by itself within its wider eco region together with the Cayman Islands, Aruba and Bonaire . The reefs of Oostpunt are currently increasing in coral cover and are ranked among the best three reef systems left in the Caribbean 6 . Especially the north shore and eastern and western sides of the south coast harbor healthy coral communities. In developed areas, a significant decline has been observed in coral cover; up to 80% in less than 3 decades 7 . The reefs harbor about 69 coral species. 5 Jackson et al. 2013 6 Miloslavich et al. 2010 7 Bak, Meesters en Nieuwland, 2005

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29 Black bellied whistling ducks, Muizenberg Photo: C. Jager

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30 Figure 4: coral cover Curaçao reefs ( CARMABI , 2016)

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31 Since 2016 CARMABI started trying to identify and map Key Biodiversity Areas ecological levels: species, sites (or habitats) and ecological corridors (inter connected landscapes of sites) 8 . Regar red areas represent no fishing areas of This is a work in progress that will be validated through the consultation of local actors. (in red) for Curaçao Topic 1.3.1. Air quality Statistics on air quality includes the ambient concentration of the most important pollutants, including solid particles, g ases and other relevant pollutants that can 8 Best III Working document CARMAB I 2017

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32 have a negative effect on human and ecosystem health. Impact stations are located near major sources of pollution and measure the direct impact on air quality. Air quality on Curaçao is measured at 2 monitoring stations , near the oil refinery by the GGD , Amsterdam, Netherlands . The stations are at Beth Chaim ( an industrial area) and the other one at Kas Chikitu , a residential area , both located west of the re finery . The measurements are performed under ISO accreditation 9 . Monitoring stations Beth Chaim and Kas Chikitu Ph Curaçao For guidelines on air quality , CBS uses the Global Update 2005 o f the World Health Organization (WHO) 10 . For SO 2 the WHO maximum concentration is 20 µg/m3 , this on basis of a day, i.c. 24 hour mean For PM 10 this is 50 µg/m3 , this on basis of a day, i.c. 24 hour mean Particulate matter ( PM ) or a tmospheric particulate matter , is microscopic solid or liquid matter suspended in the atmosphere. They have effect on the climate and affect human health. Subtypes of atmospheric particle matter include r espirable suspended particle ( RSP ), which are particles with a diameter of 10 micromet er s or 9 For more information, see www.luchtmetingencuracao.org . 10 http://www.who.int/phe/health_topics/outdoorair/outdoorair_aqg /en/

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33 less, also known as PM 10 and fine particles with a diameter of 2.5 micromet e r s or less, PM 2.5 . Total Suspended Particulates (TSP or Total SP ) are tiny particles less than 100 micrometers. Particulates are the deadliest form of air pollution due to their ability to penetrate deep into the lungs and blood streams unfiltered, causing permanent DNA mutations , heart attacks and premature death . In 2013, a study involving more than 300,000 people in nine European countries revealed that actually there i s no safe lung cancer rate rose with 22% ( The Lancet Oncology , July 2013) 11 . The levels for SO2 and particulates are mainly, but not only, from the combustion of petroleum and other combustibles of the refinery and the utility plants at Dokweg . A limited contribution from transport (SO2) and natural resources (particulates) cannot be fully excluded. As can be seen in figure 6 and 7 (and table 10 and 11 of the appendix) , s ince 2010 th e average concentration levels for SOs have exceeded the WHO levels (20 µg/m3) almost every month. The low concentrations for 2010 are not representative because the refinery was n o t active for 8 months. As can clearly be seen in figure 4 and 5 , these high levels for SO2 have even further increa sed, this for not fully known reason. It is at least p artly due to an increased production in the 2010 2015 period (as can be seen in table 14, Refining Index) and partly due to the ex tension of installed product ion capacity at the Dok power plant in 2014 from 48 to 84 MW (an increase of 75%). Since 2016 the SO2 levels have decreased somewhat due to the diminishing production of the Venezuelan state owned operator of the refinery. The contribution of SO2 concen trations from the utility plant at Dokweg in relation to the total measured concentration s at Beth Chaim is estimated at 33.2 percent. For Ka s Chikitu this is 36.6 percent on basis of an analysis of the 24 hour mean levels in 2013 and 2014. Though this could be true, measures taken in the summer of 2018, when there was no production , suggest that this percentage is somewhat lower. 11 can penetrate deeper into the lungs ( The Lancet Oncology 14, July 10, 2013 ) .

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34 In the case of Beth Chaim ( appendix, table 10) the levels increased even to more than 10 tim es the WHO maximum concentration. In 2015 this happened for 6 consecutive months with a record of almost 16 times the WHO limit. In 2016, when levels decreased, this still happened two times , in 2017 this happened three times . It goes without saying that this poses a serious t hreat for the health of thousands of people in the region and vicinity of the refinery. Part of the solution to cope with th e pollution is to use natural gas as fuel in the refining process at the refinery and the CRU/ BOO plant 12 . This can help reduce the SO 2 air pollution in the future considerably. Figure 6 : SO 2 and TSP, Beth Chaim 12 The Curacao Refinery Utilities (CRU) manages the BOO power plant (Build, Own and Operate) , of which the Refineria di Korsou (RdK) is the owner. 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 2/1/2010 5/1/2010 8/1/2010 11/1/2010 2/1/2011 5/1/2011 8/1/2011 11/1/2011 2/1/2012 5/1/2012 8/1/2012 11/1/2012 2/1/2013 5/1/2013 8/1/2013 11/1/2013 2/1/2014 5/1/2014 8/1/2014 11/1/2014 2/1/2015 5/1/2015 8/1/2015 11/1/2015 2/1/2016 5/1/2016 8/1/2016 11/1/2016 2/1/2017 5/1/2017 8/1/2017 11/1/2017 SO2 en TSP monthly average in µg/m3, Beth Chaim SO2 Total SP

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35 Figure 7 : SO² and PM10, Kas chikitu Topic 1.3.3. Marine water quality Relevant statistics about marine and coastal water quality and pollutant concentrations can include (but are not restricted to) nutrients, chlorophyll, organic matter and contaminants, metals as well as coral bleaching. Unfortunately , no recent data are available. Standards are difficult to produce and for this reason are not available. Tabl e 12: Marine water quality island wide average concentration Nutrients: nitrates in marine water 2007 PO 4 (phosphate) 2007 Total Dissolved P 2007 NO2 & NO3 (nitrates) 2007 NH4 (ammonium) 0.66 2007 Dissolved inorganic N Chlorophyll in marine water 2007 Organic matter, biochemical O2 demand 2007 too variable Coral bleaching (% corals affected) 1998 16.2 2003 9.5 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 6/1/2010 9/1/2010 12/1/2010 3/1/2011 6/1/2011 9/1/2011 12/1/2011 3/1/2012 6/1/2012 9/1/2012 12/1/2012 3/1/2013 6/1/2013 9/1/2013 12/1/2013 3/1/2014 6/1/2014 9/1/2014 12/1/2014 3/1/2015 6/1/2015 9/1/2015 12/1/2015 3/1/2016 6/1/2016 9/1/2016 12/1/2016 3/1/2017 6/1/2017 9/1/2017 12/1/2017 SO2 and PM10 monthly average in µg/m3, Kas Chikitu SO2 PM10

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36 2005 5 2010 10 Source: CARMABI . Sewage pollution of nearshore water is highest in the zone near Willemstad, being the most developed region on the island 13 . Trash is common on reefs in especially Bullenbaai and Westpunt. Extensive dumping has occurred historically on the north s hore and piles of car tires were observed at depths between 25 and 40 meters over an area that is multiple kilometers in length. Playa Kanoa photo: C. Jager 13 .

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37 2. Env ironmental Resources and their use Component 2 of the Core Set entails the living and non living constituents of the earth, together comprising the environment that may provide benefits to humanity. Environmental resources include non energy and energy minerals, land, soil resources, biological and water resources. They can be r enewable (e.g. fish or water) or non renewable (e.g. minerals ) and are used as important inputs in production and consumption. This component is closely related to the asset and physical flow account of the SEEA 14 , the System of Environmental Economic Acc ounting of the UN. This is partly because statistics on environmental resources and their use are focused on measuring stocks and changes in stocks of these resources. In the case of non renewable resources, continued extraction usually leads eventually to the depletion of the resource. 14 The System of Environmental Economic Accounting (SEEA) contains the internationally agreed standard concepts, definitions, classifications, accounting rules and tables for producing internationally comparable statistics on the environment and its relations hip with the economy. The SEEA framework follows a similar accounting structure as the System of National Accounts (SNA) in order to facilitate the integration of environmental and economic statistics.

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38 Pitch lake and refinery ph oto: C. Jager Topic 2.1.1. Stocks and changes of non energy mineral resources Stocks of non energy mineral resources are defined as the amount of known deposits of mineral resources. The minerals in question vary from stone and sand, to clay, chemical and fertilizer minerals, salt and various other minerals. I n Curaçao there are mi ning activities for the extraction of limestone, a very pure Calcium Carbonate (CaCO 3 ) from the mountain called Ta felberg . This calcium marine deposit was formed in a very dry and clear seawater environment over millions of years. This non energy mineral is not renewable so its depletion reduces the availability in the environment over time. According to information of the Curaçao Mining Company it is estimated that stocks are sufficient till 2045. As can be seen in table 13 production of blocks and sand as well as the mining index is clearly diminishing. Limestone from the Tafelberg is used for a number of applications such as asphalt, concrete, plaster work, paves, glass production and water purification. Table 13: Stocks of mineral resources, limestone 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Production index blocks 275 252 242 242 189 194 202 187 Production index sand 146 145 144 140 117 125 130 133 Mining index CBS 211 198 193 191 153 160 166 160 Turnover index 100 83 75 105 90 90 112 97 Source: Curaçao Mining Company and CBS The mining index is the mean of the blocks and sand indexes Topic 2.2.2. Production and use of energy Energy production refers to the capture, extraction or manufacturing of fuels or energy in forms , which are ready for general consumption (final use). Energy is produced for human consumption in a number of different ways, depending on its source. Energy production, transformation, distribution a nd consumption are made with different efficiency rates and these processes cause distinct environmental

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39 impacts such as land use change, air pollution, GHG emissions (Green House Gasses) and waste. It is therefore that producing statistics to describe the se activities is key to envi ronmental sustainability policy (source: FDES 2013). Total energy production originates from non renewable and renewable sources. These constitute key environment statistics that can assist when analyzing the sustainability of the energy mix. Renewable energy (such and wind and solar) is transformed from sources that replenish this flow. It is also cleaner than non renewable energy (such as gasoil and diesel oil) and its carbon footprint is substantially less than fossil fuel en ergies. The initial target for renewable production was set at 25% in 2015. In 2012 two wind parks became operational, supplying approximately 16% of tot al installed capacity . In 2017 the wind park at Terra Kora was expanded with 16.5 MW. As a result, the installed capacity increased to almost 24% what is close to the target of 25% (table 15). Since 2011 households and companies are allowed to produce their own renewable electricity up to their own usage including a grid connection and feed in compensatio n. Th is was an overwhelming success . To capitalize on this success m easures were taken at the end of 2014 by the utilities and the government by introducing a service fee. This fee, called solar tax by the general public, dis courage d the use of solar panels. Users who like to install solar panels to generate renewable energy, had to pay 16 guilders per panel per month. For businesses , the rate wa s 32 guilders per month. The discourage policy for solar energy has proven to be effective . While the projection for 2016 was 28.6 MW, the real installed capacity turned out to be no more than 11.1 MW (38.8% of the projection). For several reasons, a ction has been taken and s ince January 2018 the service fee has been reduced to 8 guilders per p anel per month for households and 16 guilders for businesses . The oil import in volumes has already been decreased and will likely decrease more if the intentions to invest more in sustainable energy like wind, solar power and the construction of a 15 MW solar park, will be executed. Although these steps still need to be taken, the route is set towards a new era with less oil and more renewables.

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40 Potable water is currently provided in adequate numbers for residents and visitors. 15 However, uncertainty around future demands, parti cularly those linked to tourism; necessitate actions to maintain this water production security in the long term. The capacity margin (production minus demand) will decline in case that both the residential population increases and the tourist numbers grow. Table 14: Production and use of energy 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Water production (1000 m3) 13,846 14,398 14,560 14,495 14,232 13,759 14,141 14,648 Connections*: 73,764 75,030 76,522 77,804 79,304 80,619 82,324 Electricity production (1000 kWh) 868,910 902,239 910,254 894,064 872,259 878,000 883,700 887,471 Connections*: 73,079 74,411 76,075 77,259 78,746 80,079 81,588 Refining Index: (1993 = 100) 41.8 78.5 81.4 83.4 89.6 81.6 126 108 Wind: installed capacity in MW per Dec. 8 8 30 30 30 30 30 46.5 Solar: official installed capacity in MW per Dec. nihil nihil 0.1 3.1 7.7 10.1** 11.1 11.1 Sources: Aqualectra (water and electricity, all info for 2017), Nucapital (wind), BTP (solar), CBSC (Refinery) * each January ** adapted projection (due to the introduction of the 2015 service fee) from 28.6 to 20 MW , later to 10.1 15 Evidence based infrastructure i n Curaçao, UNOPS, May 2018 .

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41 Table 15: product mix electricity, installed capacity per end of 2017 MW % Old Dokweg plant: 48.5 24.7 New Dokweg plant: 35.0 17.8 Diesel, refinery: 33.6 17.1 Wind turbines: 46.5 23.7 Solar panels: 10.9 5.5 CRU (BOO): 22.0 11.2 Total: 196.5 100.0 Figure 8 : Installed capacity in MW S ources: Aqualectra and NuCapita l *IFO = Industrial Fuel Oil Old Dokweg plant: 24.7% New Dokweg plant: 17.8% Diesel, refinery: 17.1% Wind turbines: 23.7% Solar panels: 5.5% CRU (BOO): 11.2% Installed capacity in MW per end 2017 Old Dokweg plant: New Dokweg plant: Diesel, refinery: Wind turbines: Solar panels: CRU (BOO):

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42 Topic 2.6.2. Abstraction and use of water Water is abstracted from surface and groundwater resources for economic activities and households. It can be abstracted for direct own use or for distribution to other users. Surface water is very scarc e in Curaçao , groundwater abstraction is widely used , mostly for agriculture . Potable water is produced via desalination of seawater using steam driven flash evapora tor s and r everse osmosis. Water losses can be significant. Unfortunately , in Curaçao this is the case. According to the production company (December 1989) the non unaccounted for water ) amounted to 30% of the distributed volumes of water. Of this percentage 13.5% was due to physical losses and 17.5% to so call ed administrative losses, including water use through illegal connections. In 2006 the same percentage of 30% was mentioned in an advisory report of drs. M. Karskens 16 . More recent figures of 2013 from the Bureau for Telecommunication, Post & Utilitie s (BTP &U) show that the losses of non revenue water were 24 to 28% of total production. These figures are confirmed by the UNOPS report of May 2018. According to BTP&U (World B ank 2006 17 ) a level of non revenue water for developing countries of 17.5% is reasonable. Bearing in mind that potable water in Curaçao is strongly related to energy ( it is produced by desalinating sea water in conjunct ion with electricity production) the high levels of unaccounted for water represent a serious economic cost. In 2014 t his can be estimated at 24% of 1 4.2 mln. m 3 which is 3 . 4 mln. m 3 . For that reason several actions and programs of reducing water losses has been embarked upon by the water producing and distributing company. T he most recent action plan is focused to reduce the water losses in 3 years to 17 percent by 2018 . According to the UNOPS report the percentage of non revenue for 2017 was 23% which correspondents with a loss of 3,4 mln. m 3. . 16 Drs. M.W.R. Michiel Karskens, (September 2006). Energieconsument op Curaçao 17 The challenge of reducing non revenue water (NRW) in developing countries how the private sector ca n help : a look at performance based service contracting . World Bank, January 2006

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43 Tabl e 16: Abstraction of water no. of households 2001 2011 A well with an electric pump 3846 5719 A well with a windmill 1194 1134 A well without a pump o r windmill 830 982 No well 37048 46774 Not reported 243 327 Total: 43161 54936 Source: CBS Census 2001 and 2011

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44 3. Residuals This component is closely related to the physical flow accounts of the SEEA framework (chapter 2) . Flow accounts contains flows from the economy to the environment. Its statistics gives us information about the amount and characteristics of residuals generated by human production and consumption processes, their management and their final release to the environment. Residuals are solid, liquid and gaseous materials that are discar ded, discha rged or emitted directly to the environment or be captured, collected, treated or reused. The main groups of residuals are emissions, wastewater and waste. ph oto: C. Jager

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45 Topic 3.1.1. Emission of Green A 18 , under the auspices of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). , such as Sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) . The most important GHG carbon dioxide CO 2 and methane CH 4 . Though methane is not very common on Curaçao its relative impact is high because of the hi gh global warming potential (GWP) relative to CO 2 . According to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report of 2014 the GWP is 28 times CO 2. At the end of 2011 a first has been executed for Curaçao for the year 2010 . This is by CBS in cooperation with Kool Caribe Consult. Such a Footprint gives information about the contribution of Curaçao to emissions of GHG s w hich are the most important and fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect and climate change . By the end of 2 016 a second GHG inventory has been made by the CBS for the year 2015. As can be seen in table 17 most of the emissions are related to the refinery and the utility industry. The production of energy for the refinery as well as the re finery itself contribute for more than 30 percent of total emissions. The contribution of the uti lity industry is limited to less than 10 percent. Landfill a nd transport count only for less than 10 percent. The 2015 emissions of Curaçao in comparison to 2010 show a reduction of 322. 4 kton, i.c. 7.2 percent in 5 years . tention to create an adapted new Carbon Footprint in 2019, this for the year 2018. 2010 2015 18 The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ( IPCC ) is a scientific intergovernmental body under the auspices of the United Nations . It was first established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the Uni ted Nations Environment Programm e (UNEP )

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46 Tabl e 17: GHG's : CO 2 and CH 4 kton relative kton relative Transport 420.4 9.3% 407.8 9.8% Cooking, natural gas 23.8 0.5% 23.4 0.6% Production of electricity and water 795.4 17.7% 409.6 9.8% Industry: refinery 1446.1 32.1% 1609.9 38.5% Industry: production of energy for refinery 1418.9 31.5% 1325.9 31.7% Industry: production of concrete 10.1 0.2% 7.1 0.2% landfill 387.6 8.6% 394.0 9.4% Total: 4502.3 100.0% 4177.9 100.0% Source: Carbon Footprint Study Figure 9 : relative share of emissions 10% 0.6% 10% 38% 32% 0.2% 9% Carbon Footprint 2015 Transport Cooking, natural gas Production of elektricity and water Industry: refinery Industry: production of energy for refinery Industry: production of concrete Landfill

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47 Tabl e 18: Emissions and benchmarks GHG's 2015 capita: 157980 per capita in ton CO 2 Total Curaçao 2015 kton CO 2 4178 26.4 Total excl. refinery / CRU kton CO 2 1242 7.9 Aruba 876 8.5 Colombia 89625 1.9 Kuw a it 97960 27.3 Trinidad & Tobago 46542 34.5 Netherlands 169973 10.1 Saudi Arabi a 541429 17.9 Venezuela 185532 6.1 U.S. A. 5186168 16.1 Benchmarks are 2013 emissions CO 2 , World Statistics UN 2016 Topic 3.2.2. Collection and treatment of wastewater Generated waste water basically can be discharged in two ways. It can be discharged directly to the environment by the generator, or it can be collected in sewerage systems and treated in sewage treatment plants . The collection and treatment of wastewater on Curaçao is very important. Especially because of the fact that h igh concentrations of nutrients, such as ammonia and nitrates , can be a serious problem for our coral reefs and thus our (diving) tourism and fisheries (G.J. Gast 1998) . While the nitrate norm for drinking water for human beings is 20 ppm, corals in a seawater aquarium will die at 2 ppm and corals on a coral reef are seriously stressed at much lower levels. The problem is that corals are naturally adapted to a low nutrient environment and are t hus extremely sensitive to quite low levels of nutrient pollution. Indications are that sewage waters are probably a major problem. Nowadays 33 percent of the households and businesses are connected to the sewage system 19 . Transported by approximately 390 km. of sewage pipelines it is brought to 19 U. Cordilia, UNOPS Kick off workshop 2018.

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48 4 sewage treatment p lants at Klein Hofje, Klein Kwartie r , Tera Kora and Abattoir (table 19). T heir t otal capacity is more than 5100 m3 per day and the treatment consists of 3 steps; a mechanical, a biological and finally a chemical treatment . Currently, around 16 percent of the wastewater is treated, the remaining 84 percent goes untreated and is discharged into the terrestrial and marine enviro nment 20 . Table 19: Sewage Treatment Plants, capacity per end of 2016 m3/day % Klein Hofje 3200 62.2 Klein Kwartier 1752 34.1 Tera Kora 166 3.2 Abbatoir 25 0.5 Total: 5143 source: Dept. of Public Facilities Wastewater collected at the sewage treatment plant Klein Hofje in Curaçao typically contains about 83 ppm of N products, this value is probably indicative for other local wastewater as well. T here is also some seepage of sewage water via inner bays (Spanis h water, Schottegat, Piscaderabay) and directly into the sea via groundwater ( G.J. Gast, 1998). In some wells nitrate concentrations as high as 100 ppm have been found. Curaçao has a large population so there must have been considerable seepage of nutrient s , especially via the Schottegat and this could very well have been a factor in the decline of corals near the harbor entrance. This , however , did not affect areas further downstream, where the decline of coral cover set in much later. Topic 3.3.2. Ma nagement of Waste This topic includes statistics on the amount of waste collected and transported to treatment facilities or their final disposal. It also includes the amount treated by type of treatment or disposal like recycling, incineration and landfilling. Waste covers discarded materials that are no longer required by the owner or user. It includes materials that are in solid or liquid state but excludes wastewater and emissions. 20 Evidence based infrastructure i n Curaçao, UNOPS, May 2018 .

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49 The management of waste is one of the major challenges according to the National Report for Sustainable Development 21 . An adequate management of waste is essential for the protection of public health and the environment. The problems that threat environmen tal sustainability include pollution of marine areas from domestic sewage, inadequate sewage treatment facilities, industrial effluents and agricultural runoff, the management of toxic substances and ineffective regulations. A notable challenge beyond tha t of solid waste management is the management of toxic substances such as pesticides, waste oil and heavy metals. Currently there is a limited capacity to manage or dispose toxic waste substances, which results in significant risks to terrestrial marine en vironments. Recycled materials consist mainly of building materials (more than 98%). The high figures for 2014 and especially 2015 are due to the dismantling of the St. Elisabeth hospital. The main infrastructure for solid waste is the 45 hectare sanitar y landfill at Malpais. It has a remaining estimated lifetime until 2026. The amount of total waste collected per capita per day is 3. 0 kg. For 201 7 this is 10 8 0 kg /capita , which is very high and three times compared to the amount in Latin America and the Caribbean 22 and more or less twice the amount compar ed to cities in deve l oped countries like Rotterdam and Athens 23 . Table 20: Municipal waste collected 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Deposited on Landfill 173907 176786 180874 143930 168743 176806 156540 158852 Recycled 18468 14728 29797 11729 53110 80357 21137 14193 Burned 63 155 70 147 94 81 81 78 Total waste: 192438 191669 210741 155806 221947 257244 177758 173123 Population: 147122 150284 151378 152798 154843 156971 158989 160337 Waste/capita/day: (kg) 3.6 3.5 3.8 2.8 3.9 4.5 3.1 3.0 In 1000 kg. Recycling at CRC: Curaçao Recycling Company 21 National Report of Curaçao for the 3d Conference on SIDS, September 2014 22 Waste Management Outlook, UNEP, October 2018 . 23 World Population Data Sheet 2016, Population Reference Bureau.

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50 Burning at CIC; Caribbean Incineration Company Source: Selikor Figure 10: contributions to waste. Source: UNOPS report May 2018. 53% 3.0% 20% 24% Contribution to waste arising Commercial Cruiseship induced Stay-over tourist induced Municipal

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51 4. E xtreme Events and Disasters This component contains statistics regarding the occurrence and impacts of extreme events and disasters on human well being and on the infrastructure. It consists of two sub components : Natural Extreme Events and Disasters ; frequency and intensity, deriving from natural phenomena, as well as their impact on human lives and habitats and the environment as a whole. Technological Disasters; occurrence and impact arising as a result of human intent, negligence or error, or from faulty or failed technological applications. Hurricane Tomas p h oto: Wikipedia

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52 Topic 4.1. Natural Extrem e Events and Disasters An extreme event is an event that is rare within its statistical reference distribution at a particular location. An extreme event is normally as rare or rarer than the 10 th or 90 th percent ile. A disaster is often described as a result of exposure to an extreme event. The Center for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED) defines a destruction and human and requires international assistance. For inclusion into this sub component a disaster should be categorized using the CRED criteria. This means that at least one of the following criteria m ust be fulfilled: Ten or more people reported killed; One hundred or more people reported affecte d ; , Declaration of a state of emergency , or Call for international assistance has been made. In recent decades, because of an increase in extreme events, natu ral disasters have become more frequent, more intensive and more destructive (UN FDES, 2013) . Climate change has been associated with the increasing frequency and severity of extreme weather events. It has resulted in increased global temperatures, rising sea levels, increased storms and precipitation, droughts, floods, hurricanes, tornadoes and other climatic disruptions in many places around the world. As the occurrence and intensity of natural extreme events and disasters have increased globally, countri es have and will face increasing social and economic impacts. November 1, 2010: Hurricane Tomas. The d amage caused by this hurricane is estimated at Ang 200 mln. a nd caused at least two deaths . This was the latest recorded tropical storm to strike the Windward Islands and Curaçao . Tomas developed from a tropical wave east of the Windward Islands, q uickly intensifying into a hurricane, it moved through the Windward Islands and passed Saint Lucia . After reaching Category 2 status on the Saffir Simpson scale , Tomas quickly weakened to a tropical storm in the central Caribbean Sea . Tomas later regained hurricane status as it reorganized nea r the Windward passage .

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53 ph oto: track of hurricane Tomas, Wikipedia Although the storm did not directly strike the ABC islands , one of its outer rain bands stalled over the region and intensified during the night of November 1 to November 2. Curaçao experienced its most extreme rain event in 40 years; as many as 265 mm were recorded over a 24 hour period in the eastern part of the island. The majority of the rain fell overnight in a heavy dow npour, accompanied by a severe thunderstorm that triggered large scale power outages. Lightning strikes spar ked three large fires in the oil refinery. The fires inflicted severe damage t o several tanks, estimated at $10 million 24 . Flights from Curaçao International Airport were delayed due to the hazardous conditions . Following hours of heavy rainfall, widespread floods made most roads in the region impassable, with dozens of cars swept away or stranded. The rains filled dams and overwhelmed drains, causing them to overflow. The neighborhoods of Saliña , Brievengat and Mahaai were among the hardest hit; hundreds of homes, gardens and businesses were inundated. Overall, Curaçao suffered some of its worst flooding in history; insured losses across the island exceede d 110 million ($63mln) , though total damage costs from Tomas were million ( $115 million) . 25 24 Sharlon Monart (November 3, 2010). Miljoenenschade Tomas aan woningen, winkels en bedrijven 25 Sharlon Monart (November 25, 2010). . Radio Netherlands World wide

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54 photos: Curaçao Chronicle Topic 4.2. Technological Disasters D isasters may arise as a result of human intent, negligence or error, or from failed technological applications. Policy makers, analysts and civil society require statistics on technological disasters in order to understand who is ultimately responsible, wh at the immediate and potential impact may be, and to assess and mitigate future risks. To date, records of global technological disasters show increasing frequency and impact on humans, the infrastructure and the environment. This reinforces the relevance and necessity of statistics on these issues. There are three types of technological disasters recognized by CRED. These are: I ndustrial accidents which cover accidents associated with chemical spill, collapse, explosion, fire, gas leak, poisoning, radiat ion and other; T ransport accidents which cover accid ents associated with air, road and water; and M iscellaneous accidents which cover accidents associated with collapse, explosion, fire, and other disasters of varied origin. All these types of disasters can impact large areas and affect both human safety and the environment in both the short and long term.

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55 August 17, 2012: Oil spill Bullenbaai . A large amount of oil, thousands of barrels, leaked into Bullenbaai and cause d a catastrophe in the 666 ha. natural reservoir Saliña Sint Marie , a Ramsar wetland . It coated beaches, polluted mangrove swamps and glazed crabs, lizards and flamingos in petroleum tar. Initially, the oil refinery admitted that the oil came from their installations, but soon afterwar d s retracted their declarations and the case went to court. Almost two years after the spill the court came to a settlement with the Refinery. The main points of the agreement consist of a package of technical measures, a tightening of procedures to reduce the risk of an oil leak in the future and a fine of Naf 10.000. Just 8 days later there was a disaster at the Amuay refinery at nearby Punto Fijo (Ven ezuela ) when a gas leak set of an explosion August 25 , killing 42 people and sending toxic black clouds of smoke into the air (source Curaçao Chronicle) . ph oto: Curaçao Chronicle ph oto: Uniek Curaçao December 15, 2012: Fire Work Explosion . A n explosion in a fire work warehouse on an industrial estate claimed the lives of four persons , one died at the scene, the others later. Furthermore , it wounded another 4 of which 1 seriously . The building and 3 cars were destroyed. The cause of the incident is still unknown for (source: Cura çao Chronicle, December 17, 2012) .

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56 photos : Curaçao Chronicle

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57 5. Human Settlements and Environmental Health This component contains statistics on the environment in which humans live and work, particularly with regard to living conditions and environmental health. They are important for the management and improvement of conditions related to human settlements, safe water, sanitation, and health, particularly in the context of rapid urbanization, increasing pollution, environmental degradati on, disasters, extreme events, and climate change. The wellbeing and health risks associated with the environment (and also those posed by extreme events and disasters) can be substantially mitigated or increased by several factors. These factors include t he appropriate infrastructure for the provision of water and sanitation, adequate waste disposal, wise land use planning, clean and safe transportation, safe building design and good housing and ecosystem health. The existence of these conditions can impro ve a given human settlement and the wellbeing and health of humans. Conversely, vulnerable human settlements are often more impacted by the changing environment and recover more slowly from pollution, environmental degradation, and extreme events and disas ters. photo: C. Jager

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58 Topic 5.1.1. Urban and rural population Humans live primarily in rural or urban communities 26 , building their homes, shelters and institutions, while using environmental resources to satisfy their human needs. Depending on the carrying capacity of ecosystems, these settlements and their use of environmental resources will affect environmental conditions, as well as human wellbeing and health. P opulation data can be used not only as a reference but also in combin ation with other environment statistics to construct indicators. For instance, in combination with housing, water and sanitation stati stics, they can provide determinants of the environmental sustainability of human settlements and environmental health. The main statistics pertaining to this topic are rural, urban and total population, including population density (population/km2) . These statistics are a very important and a pivotal element for our environment and its sustainability. Already in the 18 th c entury Thomas Malthus suggested that growing population rates would exceed resource growth leading to catastrophic overpopulation 27 because population grew exponentially while food supply grew arithmetically. These Malthusian catastrophes have not taken place on a global scale due to progress in agricultural technology. However, nowadays man y argue that future pressures on food production , combined with threats such as global warming, make overpopulation a still more serious threat in the future (source: Wikipedia Encyclopedia) . In January 201 7 , total population o f Curaçao increased to more than 1 60 , 000 inhabitants, the population density 3 61 people/km ² which is high and comparable with Japan (348), the Philippines (3 52 ) and Puerto Rico (376) . Other b enchmarks for population density are Caribbean small states; 18, Colombia ; 4 4 , Dominican 26 At present there are no (separate) urban and rural population figures. However, in the future the CBS is planning to do so. 27 Thomas Robert Malthus (1798) One immediate impact of Malthus's book was that it fueled the debate about the size of the population in Britain and led to (or at least greatly accelerated) the passing of the Census Act 1800 . This Act enabled the holding of a national census in England, starting in 1801 and continuing every ten years to the present.

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59 Republic; 2 2 3 and the Netherlands; 50 9 28 . The number of households in 2017 was 58 . 502 . Table 21: Population Curaçao 2000 2017 Births Deaths Immigration Emigration Correction Population Pop./km2 Growth H.H. 2000 2189 990 3833 10441 738 136969 308 3.5 44442 2001 2047 1029 4198 8228 514 130822 295 4.5 43173 2002 1842 1029 8441 6304 897 127296 287 2.7 42415 2003 1929 1152 7712 4804 2173 131143 295 3.0 44123 2004 1709 1175 5918 3952 592 132655 299 1.2 45071 2005 1857 1088 6392 3742 430 135747 306 2.3 46580 2006 1867 1105 6144 3551 50 139596 314 2.8 48381 2007 1868 1107 5726 4170 2 142902 322 2.4 50029 2008 2001 1209 5212 4646 35 145220 327 1.6 51361 2009 1898 1114 4640 4698 147 146543 330 0.9 52364 2010 2032 1246 4910 4644 2110 147122 331 0.4 53120 2011 1974 1276 5276 4900 20 150284 338 2.1 54834 2012 2039 1246 4878 4121 130 151378 341 0.7 55233 2013 1962 1250 5392 4056 0 152798 344 0.9 55751 2014 1963 1370 5676 4137 7 154846 349 1.4 56499 2015 1877 1398 5959 4381 39 156971 354 1.3 57274 2016 1789 1482 5451 4404 5 158989 358 0.8 58010 2017 1548 1420 4597 5050 1 160338 361 0.8 58502 CBS estimates compiled from various data sources and publications of the CBS. All data in this file are the most recent estimations that have been calculated, deducted or found for these years. Pop. = population, H.H. = households Household estimates compiled from censuses 1992, 2001 and 2011 Date populations is January 1st. Topic 5.1.2. Acces s to water, sanitation and energy This topic includes information abo ut access to water, sanitation and energy. Access to these basic services can have a positive effect on human health and wellbeing, thereby contributing to improved environmental quality. Relevant statistics on this 28 World Bank figures 2017 .

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60 topic include population using an improved drinking water source, as w ell as population using an improved sanitation facility. The metadata of MDG indicator 7.9 29 defines an improved sanitation facility as one that hygienically separates human excreta from human contact, and includes flush or pour flush toilets or latrines co nnected to a sewer, septic tank or pit etc. The last group of statistics under this topic refer to households with access to electricity and its price. Access to electricity is a measure of modern energy services. The percentages in the tables shown here refer to the number of households. Table 2 2 : Occupied living accommodations by type of water supply* 2001 % 2011 % Water supply line 42226 97.8 54295 98.8 Cistern or water well (groundwater) 47 0.1 2021 3.7 Water truck 15 0.0 36 0.1 Buying bottled water 187 0.4 184 0.3 Other water supply 184 0.4 420 0.8 * Multiple responses are possible per living accommodation Source: census CBS Table 2 3 : Occupied living accommodations by type of sanitation Drainage of the toilets via: 2001 % 2011 % The cesspool ('beerput') 31123 72.1 42375 77.1 The septic tank n.r. 1703 3.1 The sewage 9801 22.7 10209 18.6 Other 379 0.9 240 0.4 Not applicable 50 208 Not reported 133 201 Source: census CBS 29 The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) indicator 7.9 is the proportion of population using an improved sanitation facility. This is defined as the percentage of the population with access to an improved sanitation facility with respect to the totality of the population .

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61 Table 2 4 : Type of electric supply * 2001 % 2011 % Electricity grid 42201 97.8 54219 98.7 Own generator 63** 0.1 286 0.5 Solar energy/wind energy 71 0.1 Other power supply 19 0.04 425 0.8 Not reported 143 126 * Multiple responses are possible per living accommodation ** Inclusive solar power Source: census CBS Topic 5.1.5 . Environmental concerns specific to urban settlements Th e topic of environmental concerns is meant to organize issues of specific relevance to urban areas. Depending on national and local conditions and priorities, additional environmentally relevant urban concerns should be included here. With regard to transportation, statistics can include the numb er of private, public and commercial vehicles by engi ne type . Most importantly from the environment statistics persp ective, additional statistics c ould include the number of passengers transported by public transportation systems. Table 25: Number of motor vehicles 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Passenger cars 61578 69035 67998 69062 69574 72848 75709 Motor lorries and pick ups 12021 12908 12377 12079 12768 11814 11869 Motor buses 379 369 346 297 331 318 319 Taxis 179 159 138 141 138 132 128 Other cars 163 404 472 459 500 604 434 Motorcycles, incl. mopeds 1117 1300 1689 1757 1758 1439 1310 Number of passenger cars/km² 139 155 153 156 157 164 171 Note: excluding motor vehicles owned by the government Number of motor vehicles registered, per Dec. 31

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62 The relative low number of cars in 2011 is due to an administrative clean op of the data Numbers for 2010 are not considered to be reliable Source: Collector's office, 'Ontvanger' Topic 5.2.1. Airborne diseases and conditions This topic includes all airborne diseases and conditions that are caused or worsened by exposure to unhealthy levels of pollutants (such as PM, SO 2 or O 3 ). Airborne diseases and conditions include, but are not limited to, upper and lower respiratory disease, obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, allergic rhinitis, lung cancer, coronary artery heart disease and stroke. This topic includes health statistics on morbidity (such as incidence and prevalence) and mortality of these diseases or conditions, as well as measurement of the associated impact on the labor force and on the economic costs. Although there are certainly reas ons to believe that this topic is relevant to Curaçao , e.g. asthma and lung cancer caused by PM and SO2 emissions from the refinery, there is no statistical information available on this topic. Topic 5.2.2. Water related diseases and conditions This topic includes all water related diseases and conditions that result from micro organisms and chemicals in the water humans drink. Water related diseases and conditions are still a considerable public health problem in many countries. They include, bu t are not limited to diseases caused by biological contamination such as gastroenteritis infections caused by bacteria, viruses and protozoa, and water borne parasite infections. Where available, this topic includes health statistics such as morbidity (inc idence and prevalence) and mortality of these diseases or conditions, as well as measures of the associated impact on the labour force and on the economic costs. I n Curaçao there are no recent known cases of legionella . Last legi onella infections were in 1 998 a n d 1999 .

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63 Topic 5.2.3. Vector borne diseases This topic includes vector borne diseases that are transmitted by organisms , e.g. insects that carry viruses and bacteria. Common vector borne diseases include, but are not limited to, malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever , C hikungunya and Lyme disease. Some vector borne diseases are being directly affected by climate change, notably by the change in rain patterns and floods. This topic includes health statistics such as morbidity (incidence and prevalenc e) and mortality of these diseases or conditions, as well as measures of the associated impact on the labour force and on the economic costs. Table 26: Vector borne diseases 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Dengue * 2800 2654 720 680 167 39 309 Chikunggunya 1657 1847 1847 Dengue and Chikungunya ** 3587 686 3405 Zika 1*** 1725 Zika and Dengue 185 Zika and Chikungunya 14 Zika, Dengue and Chikungunya 7 Source: Ministry of Health, Environment and Nature * DF, DHF and probable and suspected cases ** Including suspected cases *** 14 cases were tested, only 1 was confirmed Dengue fever is a mosquito borne disease caused by the dengue virus . Recovery generally takes less th an two to seven days. In a small proportion of cases, the disease develops into the life threatening dengue fever. Chikungunya is an infection caused by the C hikungunya virus . Symptoms include fever and joint pain . These typical ly occur two to twelve days after exposure. Most people are better within a week. Zika is spread by daytime active Aedes mosquitoes. Its name comes from the Z i ika Forest of Uganda. Zika virus is related to the dengue , yellow fever , Japanese

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64 encephalitis , and West Nile viruses. Since the 1950s, it has been known to occur within a narrow equatorial belt from Africa to Asia. From 2007 to 2016, the virus spread eastward, across the Pacific Ocean to the Americas, leading to the 2015 16 Zika virus epidemic .

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65 6. Environment Protection and Management therefore the amount of resources it dedicates to the task, is especially important because it is related to information, awareness and the ability to finance environment prote ction activities and participate in efforts (sometimes international) directed at these activities. Th e component of environment protection and management organizes information on environment protection and resource management expenditure with the aim of improving the environment and maintaining the health of ecosystems. Statistics about environmental governance, institutional strength, enforcement of regulations and extreme event preparedness are also considered. This component also contains information o n a wide variety of programs and actions to increase awareness, including environmental information and education, as well as activities aimed at diminishing environmental impacts and improving the quality of local environments. photo: C. Jager

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66 Topic 6.1.1. Government protection expenditures This topic includes government expenditure primarily aimed to protect the environment and manage resources. Government expenditure to protect the environment is usually calculated by identifying and agg regating the expenditures considered to be primarily for environment protection and resource management purposes. These expenditures can be found by examining official government finance statistics found in government budgets and/or administrative reports on actual government expenditure incurred. The main institutional partners are the official institutions in charge of reporting government expenditure. National accounts and government finance statistics are typ ically the divisions in statistical offices w hich need to be involved when developing these figures . Due to the new constitutional status of the Netherlands Antilles / Curaçao as per October 2010 no information is available of that year. Table 27: Government protection expenditures In Ang. 1000 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 subsidy Selikor 29380 29267 29493 32949 32030 30624 34214 sewerage and water purification 40 pm pm pm pm pm pm subsidy Carmabi 359 306 315 291 291 291 291 subsidy Schoon Curaçao 75 subsidy Parke Tropikal 250 250 453 438 513 475 474 Protection expenditures (total): n.a. 30029 29823 30261 33678 32909 31390 34846 source: Ministry of Finance , Carmabi and Selikor .

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67 7. Tourism Tourism is one of the most important activities in many of the Caribbean countries contributing significantly to the economies. Tourism industries benefits through the creation of jobs in tourist related sectors such as security, construction and transport ation. However, this key sector also exerts significant pressure on scarce resources such as land, reefs, water and energy. In addition, it also generates a large amount of waste. The indicators under this theme seek to measure and quantify the environment al and social implications such as accommodation, transportation and employment. Tourism, like all forms of development in the coastal zone, needs to be carefully integrated within the environmental development plans. Curaçao is a partially tourism depende nt country, which means that sustainable tourism development should be continuously improved. Environmentally responsible practices by tourism companies are still limited (National Report of Curaçao , 20 1 4 30 ). The key at stimulate voluntary environmental initiatives. Uncontrolled and illegal development of construction and tourism projects and rapid expansion may frustrate and alienate locals due to traffic congestion and restrictive access to private facilities (TAC, M ay 2013). 30 National Report of Curaçao for the third Conference on SIDS, September 2014 .

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68 Piscadera Bay photo: C. Jager A visitor is a traveler taking a trip to a main destination outside his/her usual environment, for less than a year, for any main purpose (business, leisure or other personal purpose) other than to be employed by a resident entity in the country or place visited 31 . These trips taken by visitors qualify as tourism trips. Tourism refers to the activity of visitors. A visitor (domestic, inbound or outbound) is classified as a tourist (or overnight visitor), if his/her trip includes an overnight stay, or as a same day visitor (or excursionist) otherwise. Cruise passengers are regarded as a special type of same day visitor s (even if the ship overnights at the port) who stay less than twenty four hours in the country visited. Cruise ship arrivals refer to the number of times cruise ships enter the country. A cruise ship can be counted multiple times if it leaves the country, then returns with new passengers within the same month. Table 28: Cruise ship arrivals 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Ships 220 246 226 293 290 254 232 282 Passengers 383,589 400,596 436,068 583,994 596,709 511,085 469,498 634,370 Source: Curaçao Port Authority CPA 31 Definitions of CARICOM , International Recommendations for Tourism Statistics 2008

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69 Table 29: Stay over tourism 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total numbers: 341,651 390,282 419,810 440,063 452,042 468,442 441,332 398,836 Nights: 2,888,443 3,184,932 3,674,700 3,754,31 1 3,984,21 2 3,848,35 1 3,612,15 5 3,576,44 5 Source: CTB Table 30: Tourism ratio's 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Tourist Penetration ratio 5.4 5.8 6.7 6.7 7.0 6.7 6.2 6.1 Tourism Density Ratio 17.8 19.7 22.7 23.2 24.6 23.7 22.2 22.1 Tourism Intensity rate 5.2 6.5 7.0 7.2 7.2 6.7 6.3 5.6 Source: CBS Tourist Penetration Ratio: The penetration ratio quantifies the average number of tourists, per thousand inhabitants. Tourist Penetration Ratio = Average Length of stay x number of visitors / 365 x midyear population estimates Tourism Density Ratio: This ratio attempts to show the density of tourists in the country at any one time on average. Its value is limited by the fact that tourist flows are seasonal and tourism activity tends to be concentrated in specific geographic area s (tourist zones). Tourism Density Ratio = Average Length of stay x number of visitors / 365 x area in square kilometers Tourism Intensity Rate (TIR) measures the level of tourist arrivals in relation to the o show countries with particularly high tourism concentration, and consequently potential impact both for the economy as well as the socio cultural and natural environment. Tourism Intensity Rate = Number of visitors/1,000 population/km2 Table 31: Hotels: rooms and occupancy 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Number of rooms: 5421 5776 6038 6180 6405 6490 6332 6693 Occupancy % 71.7 76.2 70.4 67.3 70.0 71.1 68.0 70.4

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70 Source: Curaçao Tourist Board and CBS The number of rooms only includes officially registered ones and does not count alternative accommodations offered by Webpages like AirBnB and Home away . The room occupancy rate is according to the Caribbean Tourism Organization (CTO) a measure of capacit y utilization for hotels and similar establishments. It is calculated by dividing the monthly or yearly sum of occupied rooms by the number of rooms available for use, then multiplying the quotient by 100 . Table 32: Passengers by Air 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Arriving: 635,495 705,093 731,070 732,865 733,887 764,293 733,674 659,161 Departing: 631,410 684,307 708,997 728,461 730,549 763,087 741,039 662,279 Transit: 147,165 239,706 317,101 260,175 210,042 204,909 211,515 90,537 Total: 1,414,070 1,629,106 1,757,168 1,721,501 1,674,478 1,732,289 1,686,228 1,411,977 Source: Curaçao Airport Partners N.V.

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71 Ap p endix Air quality: Beth Chaim (industrial area) Tab l e 10: monthly average concentration in µg/m3 month SO2 times x 20 µg Total SP 2/1/2010 53.8 2.7 3/1/2010 5.2 0.3 70.2 4/1/2010 1.9 0.1 76.4 5/1/2010 1.4 0.1 47.6 6/1/2010 44.6 2.2 50.6 7/1/2010 68.3 3.4 48.4 8/1/2010 43.7 2.2 35.6 9/1/2010 31.8 1.6 30.4 10/1/2010 24.6 1.2 30.7 11/1/2010 15.2 0.8 26.9 12/1/2010 37.9 1.9 28.6 1/1/2011 90.6 4.5 45.9 2/1/2011 89.0 4.5 47.0 3/1/2011 50.0 2.5 40.5 4/1/2011 73.3 3.7 46.0 5/1/2011 53.1 2.7 49.0 6/1/2011 49.8 2.5 49.2 7/1/2011 57.7 2.9 43.1 8/1/2011 95.6 4.8 52.3 9/1/2011 79.9 4.0 60.6 10/1/2011 58.8 2.9 50.1 11/1/2011 30.9 1.5 41.9 12/1/2011 27.7 1.4 29.2 1/1/2012 44.2 2.2 32.5 2/1/2012 94.4 4.7 39.0 3/1/2012 109.9 5.5 67.0 4/1/2012 144.6 7.2 44.9 5/1/2012 80.9 4.0 62.8 6/1/2012 57.3 2.9 69.4 7/1/2012 56.7 2.8 58.5 8/1/2012 48.4 2.4 47.5 9/1/2012 61.7 3.1 45.7 10/1/2012 37.9 1.9 30.6 11/1/2012 14.0 0.7 33.2 12/1/2012 12.8 0.6 33.8

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72 1/1/2013 124.9 6.2 39.6 2/1/2013 165.9 8.3 50.1 3/1/2013 88.9 4.4 43.8 4/1/2013 185.8 9.3 55.1 5/1/2013 152.9 7.6 56.8 6/1/2013 196.0 9.8 69.7 7/1/2013 151.0 7.5 44.6 8/1/2013 241.1 12.1 51.3 9/1/2013 166.7 8.3 45.0 10/1/2013 170.0 8.5 55.4 11/1/2013 103.1 5.2 36.9 12/1/2013 122.2 6.1 36.8 1/1/2014 178.1 8.9 46.7 2/1/2014 130.2 6.5 52.0 3/1/2014 158.6 7.9 56.9 4/1/2014 258.2 12.9 72.1 5/1/2014 251.7 12.6 73.3 6/1/2014 190.3 9.5 83.0 7/1/2014 206.6 10.3 61.5 8/1/2014 159.5 8.0 54.3 9/1/2014 129.4 6.5 49.1 10/1/2014 98.6 4.9 39.0 11/1/2014 118.7 5.9 37.4 12/1/2014 153.7 7.7 43.2 1/1/2015 163.2 8.2 45.1 2/1/2015 158.2 7.9 50.1 3/1/2015 144.7 7.2 58.7 4/1/2015 261.6 13.1 88.3 5/1/2015 273.4 13.7 104.3 6/1/2015 319.5 16.0 79.6 7/1/2015 258.6 12.9 82.3 8/1/2015 284.5 14.2 72.6 9/1/2015 233.1 11.7 57.1 10/1/2015 113.2 5.7 41.5 11/1/2015 178.7 8.9 46.1 12/1/2015 312.5 15.6 63.4 1/1/2016 152.7 7.6 47.8 2/1/2016 150.6 7.5 62.0 3/1/2016 133.0 6.6 54.2 4/1/2016 157.0 7.9 80.6 5/1/2016 230.7 11.5 66.2 6/1/2016 219.5 11.0 81.3 7/1/2016 153.0 7.7 73.0 8/1/2016 186.1 9.3 77.1 9/1/2016 180.6 9.0 46.8 10/1/2016 100.3 5.0 35.3

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73 11/1/2016 56.2 2.8 25.5 12/1/2016 119.7 6.0 33.2 1/1/2017 85.2 4.3 30.6 2/1/2017 17.8 0.9 28.1 3/1/2017 69.6 3.5 38.8 4/1/2017 265.2 13.3 79.4 5/1/2017 227.1 11.4 69.6 6/1/2017 157.8 7.9 56.2 7/1/2017 275.3 13.8 53.7 8/1/2017 153.1 7.7 41.5 9/1/2017 96.7 4.8 43.9 10/1/2017 122.1 6.1 11/1/2017 106.2 5.3 35.7 12/1/2017 56.4 2.8 28.2 Source: monitoringstation Public Health Service Amsterdam SO2 = sulfurdioxyde, Air Quality Guidelinde 24 hours WHO is 20 µg/m3 times x 20 = times above 24 hours WHO norm of 20 µg/m3 TSP = Total suspended particles Incl. motor vehicle emissions Air quality: Kas Chikitu (residential area) Table 11: monthly average concentration in µg/m3 month SO2 times 20 µg PM10 times 50 µg 6/1/2010 24.0 1.2 49.2 1.0 7/1/2010 49.0 2.5 44.3 0.9 8/1/2010 39.8 2.0 37.8 0.8 9/1/2010 31.5 1.6 39.9 0.8 10/1/2010 19.5 1.0 34.5 0.7 11/1/2010 16.0 0.8 36.0 0.7 12/1/2010 32.7 1.6 36.5 0.7 1/1/2011 69.3 3.5 33.8 0.7 2/1/2011 83.6 4.2 35.0 0.7 3/1/2011 43.8 2.2 35.0 0.7 4/1/2011 65.5 3.3 34.1 0.7 5/1/2011 40.1 2.0 45.6 0.9 6/1/2011 50.8 2.5 39.9 0.8 7/1/2011 41.0 2.0 39.2 0.8 8/1/2011 52.0 2.6 36.9 0.7

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74 9/1/2011 45.4 2.3 33.6 0.7 10/1/2011 38.2 1.9 35.8 0.7 11/1/2011 22.4 1.1 38.3 0.8 12/1/2011 21.9 1.1 32.4 0.6 1/1/2012 44.8 2.2 30.6 0.6 2/1/2012 70.5 3.5 34.4 0.7 3/1/2012 114.1 5.7 55.5 1.1 4/1/2012 45.2 2.3 32.7 0.7 5/1/2012 81.0 4.0 49.1 1.0 6/1/2012 28.5 1.4 49.6 1.0 7/1/2012 54.7 2.7 48.9 1.0 8/1/2012 32.6 1.6 36.8 0.7 9/1/2012 40.0 2.0 34.3 0.7 10/1/2012 27.3 1.4 35.2 0.7 11/1/2012 64.9 3.2 30.0 0.6 12/1/2012 52.8 2.6 39.1 0.8 1/1/2013 123.7 6.2 32.9 0.7 2/1/2013 95.0 4.8 35.7 0.7 3/1/2013 83.2 4.2 37.8 0.8 4/1/2013 136.9 6.8 40.9 0.8 5/1/2013 75.7 3.8 45.2 0.9 6/1/2013 85.7 4.3 54.6 1.1 7/1/2013 93.0 4.6 51.1 1.0 8/1/2013 89.7 4.5 42.4 0.8 9/1/2013 58.6 2.9 41.2 0.8 10/1/2013 88.3 4.4 39.8 0.8 11/1/2013 99.8 5.0 39.4 0.8 12/1/2013 122.4 6.1 34.5 0.7 1/1/2014 146.3 7.3 35.0 0.7 2/1/2014 153.2 7.7 39.9 0.8 3/1/2014 113.4 5.7 39.2 0.8 4/1/2014 169.1 8.5 46.2 0.9 5/1/2014 141.3 7.1 43.2 0.9 6/1/2014 135.0 6.8 60.0 1.2 7/1/2014 107.3 5.4 39.1 0.8 8/1/2014 85.6 4.3 39.2 0.8 9/1/2014 96.2 4.8 30.9 0.6 10/1/2014 71.1 3.6 26.0 0.5 11/1/2014 105.6 5.3 26.8 0.5 12/1/2014 145.1 7.3 30.3 0.6 1/1/2015 160.5 8.0 34.3 0.7 2/1/2015 123.8 6.2 31.4 0.6 3/1/2015 151.9 7.6 38.3 0.8 4/1/2015 172.1 8.6 55.8 1.1 5/1/2015 154.04 7.7 64.5 1.3 6/1/2015 170.76 8.5 48.1 1.0

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75 7/1/2015 142.18 7.1 54.1 1.1 8/1/2015 106.51 5.3 40.9 0.8 9/1/2015 82.61 4.1 43.8 0.9 10/1/2015 33.1 1.7 35.2 0.7 11/1/2015 61.03 3.1 34.9 0.7 12/1/2015 113.7 5.7 37.2 0.7 1/1/2016 47.0 2.4 31.7 0.6 2/1/2016 105.5 5.3 48.9 1.0 3/1/2016 95.6 4.8 36.4 0.7 4/1/2016 100.7 5.0 45.1 0.9 5/1/2016 109.2 5.5 40.8 0.8 6/1/2016 87.3 4.4 42.4 0.8 7/1/2016 116.9 5.8 45.1 0.9 8/1/2016 84.2 4.2 42.7 0.9 9/1/2016 85.1 4.3 37.1 0.7 10/1/2016 49.5 2.5 33.5 0.7 11/1/2016 34.4 1.7 33.0 0.7 12/1/2016 111.4 5.6 39.7 0.8 1/1/2017 68.7 3.4 32.7 0.7 2/1/2017 12.3 0.6 32.4 0.6 3/1/2017 31.0 1.6 31.4 0.6 4/1/2017 0.0 66.4 1.3 5/1/2017 61.3 3.1 53.9 1.1 6/1/2017 81.4 4.1 41.7 0.8 7/1/2017 73.6 3.7 36.7 0.7 8/1/2017 67.4 3.4 39.0 0.8 9/1/2017 38.5 1.9 35.9 0.7 10/1/2017 60.8 3.0 35.6 0.7 11/1/2017 52.9 2.6 33.7 0.7 12/1/2017 60.7 3.0 33.1 0.7 Source: monitoringstation Public Health Service Amsterdam SO2 = sulfurdioxyde, Air Quality Guidelinde 24 hours WHO is 20 µg/m3 times x 20 = times above 24 hours WHO norm of 20 µg/m3 H2S = hydrogen sulfide PM10 = particulates ('fijnstof'), till 10 µm ug/m3 times 50µg = times above 24 hours WHO day norm of 50 µg/m3 Incl. motor vehicle emissions

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76 B iblio graphy R.P.M. Bak, G. Nieuwland (1995), Long term change in coral communities along depth gradients over Leeward reefs in the Netherlands Antilles. Bulletin of Marine Science. R.P.M. Bak, E.H. Meesters en G. Nieuwland (2005), Coral reef Crises in deep and shallow reefs : 30 years of constancy and change in reefs of Curaçao and Bonaire. C.E. Beers, J. de Freitas, P. Ketner (1997 ), Landscape ecological vegetation map of the island of Curaçao , Netherlands Antilles. Caribbean Consulting Engineers / DHV Consulting Engineers ( December 1989 ) . A Study on Long Term Energy Planning for the Island of Curaçao . CARICOM ( 2015 ) . Report of the CARICOM Workshop on Environment Statistics. CARICOM ( 2017 ) , The CARICOM Environment in Figures 2014 . CARMABI (2017), Best III, working document Depart ment of Sta tistics, Government of Bermuda, ( November 2013 ) . Environmental Statistics Compendium. Dutch Caribbean Nature Alliance, DCNA (July 2013). Flora of Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao . G.J. Gast (1998), Microbial densities and dynamics in fringing coral reef waters . PhD thesis, University of Amsterdam. Drs. M.W.R. Michiel Karskens , ( September 2006 ) . Energieconsument op Curaçao: Van geshockt en uitgeblust naar bewust en toegerust. Een (energie ) regulator als randvoorwaarde voor een betaalbare, betrouwbare en duurzame energievoorziening. IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (2014), Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis , Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, USA. J.B.C. Jackson, M.K. Donovan, K.L. Cramer and V.V. Lam (2013), Status and Trends of Caribbean Coral Reefs, Gland, Switserland.

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77 Miloslavich et al. (2010), Marine Biodiversity in the Ca ribbean, regional estimates and distribution patterns. Ministry of General Affairs (May 2013). Strategies for Sustainable Long Term Economic Development in Curaçao . TAC report. Ministery of Health, Environment and Nature in collaboration with the Office o f Foreign Relations and others (June, 2014). N ATIONAL R EPORT OF C URACAO for the Third International Conference on Small Island Developing States, Samoa, September 2014. Ole Raaschou Nielsen, et al (July 10, 2013). Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts: prospective analyses from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) . The Lancet Oncology 14 . Particulate matter air pollution contributes to lung cancer incidence in Europe. United Nations ( 2011 ) , World Statistics pocketbook 2010. United Nations (2014 2015), Envstats, News and notes. Irregular publication of the UNSD, Environment Statistics Section on topics related to environment, news and events. Unit ed Nations Environment (October 2018), Waste Management Outlook for Latin America and the Caribbean, Panama City, Panama. United Nations Office for Projects Services, UNO PS (May 2018), Eviden ce based infrastructure : Curaçao, Copenhagen, Denmark . United Nations Statistical Division , UNSD ( 2013 ) . Framework for the Development of Environment Statistics (FDES) , Final Draft. Dr. Mark J.A. Vermeij (February 2012), The current , CARMABI / University of Amsterdam. Waitt Institute (May 2017), , a marine scientific assessment. World Health Org anization ( 2005 ) . WHO Air Guidelines for particular matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide.

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78 Contributors Aqualectra Bureau Telecommunicatie en Post CARICOM CARMABI CBS CRU / BOO Curaçao Port Authority Curaçao Tourism Board Curaçao Mining Company Curoil / Curgas G &GZ (G GD ) Curaçao GGD Amsterdam Meteorological Department NuCapital Refineria ISLA Selikor UNOPS UNSD