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Censusatlas 2001, Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles

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Censusatlas 2001, Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles

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Central Bureau of Statistics Curaçao
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1 Census atlas 2001 Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles Willemstad, July 2005

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2 Central Bureau of Statistics Fort Amsterdam z/n, Willemstad Curaao, Netherlands Antilles Sint Maarten Office: 054 22355 Curaao Office: 09 461 1031 Bonaire Office: 0717 8676 Curaao Fax: 599 9 461 1696 E mail address: info@cbs.an Website: www.cbs.an This product is copyright protected. Use of the contents of this publication is allowed, provided that the source is stated. Price per copy ANG 50, includes a cd rom with colored maps, designed for printouts.

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3 Preface The Central Bureau of Statistics Netherlands Antilles proudly presents the first thematic atlas that is completely dedicated to the island of Bonaire. This product is based on the results of the Population and Housing Census, held in 2001. In this publication the data will be presented on the level of neighborhoods, instead of the usual divis ion of islands in zones or areas. By eliminating physically the level of zones or areas, the Central Bureau of Statistics creates a new perspective of analysis, which will subsequently suit more planners, developers and decision makers in their effort to s olve problems on the level of neighborhoods. This publication is compiled by Drs. Sean de Boer, who is responsible for the dissemination of the census data at the Central Bureau of Statistics. The Director Drs. Francis Vierbergen

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5 Table of cont ents P REFACE 3 I NTRODUCTION 7 M ETHODOLOGICAL FRAME 8 1 P OPULATION ISSUES 9 1.1 S IZE AND DENSITY OF T HE POPULATION 9 1.2 P OPULATION BY SE X AND AGE 10 1.3 O RIGIN OF THE POPULAT ION AND THE MOST SPO KEN LANGUAGE 12 1.4 H EALTH PERCEPTION 13 1.5 R ELIGION 14 1.6 I NTENDED TO M IGRATE 15 2 E CONOMIC STATUS OF TH E POPULATION 29 2.1 G ENERAL 29 2.2 T HE INCOME OF THE EMP LOYED POPULATION 30 2.3 H OUSEHOLD I NCOME 31 2.4 U NEMPLOYMENT 32 2.4.1 Youth unemployment 32 3 E DUCA TION 39 3.1 G ENERAL 39 3.2 S CHOOL PARTICIPATION 39 3.2.1 Partici pation rate of the age group 0 3 years 40 3.3 L EVEL OF EDUCATION 40 3.5 D ROP OUT RATE AMONG THE Y OUTH 41 4 L IVING ACCOMMODATION AND HOUSEHOLD SITUAT ION 47 4.1 G ENERAL 47 4.2 S TOCK OF DWELLING S DENSITY OF DWELLINGS AND THE AREA FOR LIV ING PURPOSES 47 4.3 L IVING ACCOMMODATIONS OCCUPANCY RATE AND S IZE OF HOUSEHOLDS 48 4.4 A DEQUACY OF LIVING AC COMMODATIONS 48 4.5 R IGHT OF OWNERSHIP THE MONTHLY RENT PAI D AND THE RATIO BETW EEN RENT AND THE HOUSEHOLD INCOME 49 4.6 P RESENCE OF BASIC AND LUXURIOUS APPLIA NCES IN THE LIVING A CCOMMODATIONS 49 4.7 C OMPOSITION OF HOUSEH OLDS 50 4 .7.1 Female head of household 53 4.7.2 One person households 53 4.7.3 One parent family households 54 5 S OCIAL ECONOMIC OVERV IEW 69 A PPENDIX 71 Graphs: Graph 1: Population of Bonaire 9 Graph 2: Sex ratio in Bonaire 10 Graph 3: Relative age distribution 11 Graph 4: Origin of the population in Bonaire 13 Graph 5: Economic status of the population 29 Graph 6: School participation 39 Graph 7: Composition of households 51 Table: Table 1: Status in employment 30

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6 Thematic maps: Population in the neighborhoods 17 Sex ratio 18 Demographic burden 19 Population 0 14 years of age 20 Population 65 years and older 21 Foreign born population 22 Papiamentu speaking households 23 Perception of health 24 Roman Catholics 25 Migration inclination 26 Migration inclination population 18 24 years 27 Economic burden 33 Income of the employed population 34 Household income 35 Unemployment rate 36 Unemployment rate 15 24 years 37 School participation 15 19 years 43 School participation 0 3 years 44 Level of education 45 Drop out rate 15 24 years of age 46 Total number of dwellings 55 Square meters for living purposes 56 Size of households 57 Living accommodations in bad condition 58 Uninhabited living dwellings 59 Rented in pro perty ratio 60 Average rent paid per accommodation 61 Basic appliances 62 Luxurious appliances 63 Female head of household 64 One person household 65 One parent households 66 Social economic overview 69

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7 Introduction In January 2001 the Central Bureau of Statistics conducted the fourth population and housing Census in the Netherlands Antilles. The following publication contains spatial displays of this census data regarding the socio economic and living conditions of the population living in Bonaire. All themes in this publica tion refer primarily to the census data of 2001. Zones and neighborhoods divide the island of Bonaire. In Bonaire 6 zones along with 22 neighborhoods are identified. Since there is no information available about zoning of neighborhoods in Bonaire, the C entral Bureau of Statistics uses criteria defined by experts of the Department of Environment development and Housing (DROV) 1 in Curaao as a points of reference. According to DROV one must assume: The already known neighborhoods in the community (either by historical or cultural agreement); That a neighborhood could be easily recognized in a spatial environment; That an entity such as a neighborhood counts a minimum of 25 houses within a beam of one third mile (500 meters) That an entity such as a neighbo rhood, finally, must have at its disposition a church, a school, a community center or a commercial or recreational area. The spatial themes in this publication present most of the time the data by equal intervals or brackets. The brackets are usually a rranged from the lowest through the highest and are presented in gray scales. The intensity varies from patterns with light gray through patterns with dark gray. The division of data in five brackets guaranties a clear interpretation of the data. Some of the topics can only be used as an indication. The reason for this is the fact that great parts of the population are densely concentrated on relative small areas while other parts reside less densely concentrated in areas much greater in size. In some cases there are no data presented for some of the neighborhoods. Therefore it is impossible to compare these neighborhoods with the each other within an area. This compilation is divided in five chapters. Each chapter will discuss a main topic. The five main topics are: population issues, the economic situation in neighborhoods, education issues, household and living accommodations and finally a chapter with an overall view of the socio economic situation in the neighborhoods. 1 Geocodesysteem Curaao versie 2003, Eilandgebied Curaao, Dienst Ruimtelijke Ontwikkeling & Volkshuisvesting

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8 Methodological frame The Central Bureau of Statistics designed the basic map of the island of Bonaire. This basic map is digitally adapted from its original in the software ARCVIEW 3.3 for use with geographical data. Data become geographical when geographical codes are attached to home addresses and to persons living in households at these addresses. These geographical data are subsequently connected to spatial display systems and from this moment on it is called Geographical Information System. Geographical Information Systems have the possibility to archive, compute, manipulate, analyze and display the spatial data. In addition, all of the presented maps of Bonaire encompass the definition for that specific theme. The reader will be therefore referred to the concerning theme. It is also very important to consider the fact that the presented indicators in this publication cannot be compared with data derived from administrative sources. It is often the case that definitions used in compiled administrative records usually diffe r from those used in the Census. Finally, it has to be mentioned that the purpose of this publication is generally descriptive. The relation between variables or indicators will be merely analyzed in this publication.

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9 1 Population issues 1.1 Size an d density of the population In 2001, the census counted 175,653 persons living in the Netherlands Antilles. Of the total number 10,791 persons inhabits Bonaire. The population of Bonaire, therefore, represents 6.1% of the total population of the Netherlan ds Antilles. If the size of the population of Bonaire in 2001 is compared with the size in 1992, the population increased with only 604 inhabitants. This increment in size of the population is equivalent to almost 6 percent. G raph 1 Graph 1 gives an insight in the development of the size of the population, starting with the year 1930. According to the graph it seems that nothing happened between 1930 and 1960, but since 1960 the population of Bonaire grew explosively in size. The growth took place most of the time between the years 1960 and 1972 and between 1981 and 1992. The map on page 17 shows the population in the neighborhoods. The most populated neighborhoods according to the map are 303/Antriol Pariba with 1,430 inhabit ants and 403/Nikiboko with 1,535 inhabitants. The neighborhoods 205/Sabadeco, 304/Lagun Hill, 602/Lima and 604/Punt Vierkant, on the contrary, are known as the least dense with a population that varies between 18 and 33 inhabitants per neighborhood.

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10 1. 2 Population by sex and age In Bonaire, fifty one percent (50.8%) of the population is female and forty nine percent (49.2%) is male. The following graph shows the sex ratio, and this is the number of females divided by the number of males and subsequentl y multiplied by 100, meaning the total number of females per 100 males. Graph 2 The female population, as it appears from this graph, outnumbered the male population since 1930 until mid 80s, although the share of the female p opulation declined considerably in those years. It is notable that the sex ratio dropped in 1992 somewhat under the hundred meaning in that year a small surplus of males in comparison with the females. Between 1992 and 2001 the female population showed aga in an increase. The map on page 18 is a display of the sex ratio in the neighborhoods. By analyzing this map it can be concluded that the total of females per 100 males (sex ratio) is the highest in the neighborhoods 206/Santa Barbara, 506/Playa and 606/ Tera Kra and the lowest in the neighborhoods 203/Nawati Zuid, 204/Nort Salia, 303/Antriol Pariba, 305/Mexico, 602/Lima and 604/Punt Vierkant. The following graph displays the relative distribution of age in Bonaire through the Census years.

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11 Graph 3 Considering the results in the graph shown above (a decline in the categories 0 14 years and 65 years and older), the growth of the population, the drop in its share of the female population, although 1992 seems to be a turning point, it can be concluded that the growth of the population between 1960 and 2001 is due to an immigration of mostly men in the age category 15 64. By analyzing the graph furthermore one could easily think of a de juvenation and ageing process that is going on. The average age that was registered in 2001 is moreover thirty three years (33.5), against thirty one years (31.1) in 1992. The growth in the population in general together with the developments in the population structure, shown above, pulls also the demographic burden or age dependency ratio down (see map and definition on page 19). Was the age dependency ratio in 1992 58,1 in 2001 the census registers an age dependency ratio of 52.3, which clearly means a drop. The map on page 19 shows in addition the neighborhoods of Rincon, 203/Nawati Zuid, 204/Nort Salia, 301/Amboina, neighborhoods of Antriol, 305/Mexico, 403/Nikkiboko, 506/Playa, 507/Playa Pabou, 601/Belnem and 604/Punt Vierkant as the neighborhood with the highest age dependency ratio (51 or more) and the neigh borhoods 304/Lagun Hill, 405/Sabana and 508/Playa Pariba as the neighborhoods with the lowest age dependency ratio (25 or less).

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12 By analyzing the maps of the age category 0 14 years of age and the age category 65 and older (see pages 20 and 21) it beco mes spatially clear that the dependency ratio in the neighborhoods 204/Nort Salia, 301/Amboina, 507/Playa Pabou, 601/Belnem and 606/Tera Kra, is determined by the young. In 101/Rincon Noord and 604/St. Peters, on the contrary, the dependency is by far de termined by the elderly. The elderly seems, when comparing the map of the young with the map of the elderly, to inhabit the more rural areas of Bonaire, whereas the young inhabit principally the more upcoming areas, like Nort Salia, Amboina, Playa Pabou Belnem and Tera Kra. 1.3 Origin of the population and the most spoken language The following graph displays the origin of the population living in Bonaire. The diagram on the left side encompasses the data of 1992, while the diagram on the right side represents the data collected during the census of 2001. Between 1992 en 2001, a decline in the population born in Bonaire, a stabilization of those born on the other island of the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba and an increase of the population born els ewhere can be observed. The diagrams on page 13 show in addition an increment by eleven percentage points (11.1) of the foreign born population 2 In 1992 the census registered a share of 14 percent against 25 percent in 2001. Of the twenty five percent (25.1%) born elsewhere and living in Bonaire, over thirty percent (30.5%) is born in Dominican Republic, almost sixteen percent (15.9%) in Colombia, almost fourteen percent (13.9%) in Venezuela and ten percent (10.1%) in Suriname. These are the major grou The map Foreign born population on page 22 is a spatial distribution of the foreign born population. The analysis show the neighborhoods 602/Lima and 604/Punt Vierkant as the neighborhoods with the highest percenta ges of foreign born population (81% or more) and the neighborhoods 203/Nawati Zuid, 204/Nort Salia, 301/Ambiona, 305/Mexico, 405/Sabana and 606/Tera Kra as the neighborhoods with the lowest percentages of foreign born population (less than 25%). 2 Foreign born are citizens who where not born in either Aruba or the Netherlands Antilles.

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13 Grap h 4 The most spoken language in Bonaire in 2001 is Papiamentu (72.3%) although its share decreased by almost seventeen percentage points (16.7). Languages like Spanish or Dutch, on the contrary, show since 1992 a substantial increase. Spanish sp okes, for instance, arose from 5.6% in 1992 to 11.5% in 2001, whereas Dutch spokes arose respectively from 6.4% to 10.5% The map Papiamentu speaking households on page 23 displays the neighborhoods 203/Nawati Zuid, 204/Nort Salia, 301/Amboina, 303/Antrio l Pariba, 305/Mexico, 405/Sabana and 606/Tera Kra as the neighborhoods with the highest percentage of Papiamentu speaking households (75% or more), whereas the neighborhoods 205/Sabadeco, 304/Lagun, 602/Lima and 604/Punt Vierkant have the lowest percentag e of Papiamentu speaking households (less than 25%). population precedes the most. 1.4 Health perception The questionnaire of the 2001 census edited once again the question The answers could vary between very good and very bad. To give a good spatial i mpression of the health perception in Bonaire a value is worked out.

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14 a combined value. This is subsequently done for the three age categories 0 14 year, 15 64 years and 65 years and over in all neighborhoods. The acquired percentages are standardized with the structure of the total population of Bonaire so the influence of age can be eliminated. The acquired value after the standardization is used as a score. The s neighborhood perceives their health as good. The following map is a display of the relative perception of health in the neighborhoods of Bonaire (see page 24). The population in 304/Lagun judged their health as the worst if this is compared with the total population. The opposite situation can be found in the neighborhoods 202/Nawati Noord, 205/Sabadeco and 602/Lima. Here, the population seems to judge their health as the best in comparison with the total population of Bonaire. In other words, their condition is very good, compared to the average situation of Bonaire. 1.5 Religion Mo re than 20 different religions have been registered during the census of 2001. Nevertheless in Bonaire the Roman Catholic Church is still the biggest with a representation of seventy seven percent, but its share has dropped since 1992 with five percentage points (5.2). The Pentecostal Church is the only church since 1992 that shows a considerable growth. In 1992 the census registered one and a half percent while in 2001 it was four percent. The growth is therefore two and a half percentage points. The s hare of the population with no religion shows since 1992 also a significant growth. The growth is of one and a half percentage points. The Map of Roman Catholics on page 25 is a display of the population, affiliated to the Roman Catholic Church in Bonair e. As it can be derived from the map, 77% or more of the population affiliated can be found in the neighborhoods of Rincon, 301/Amboina, 303/Antriol Pariba, 305/Mexico, 405/Sabana, 506/Playa and 606/Tera Kra while less than 50% of the population affilia ted can be found in the neighborhoods 202/Nawati Noord, 304/Lagun and 602/Lima.

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15 1.6 Intended to Migrate During the census of 2001 the respondents were asked how long they intended to live in the Netherlands Antilles. The answers to this question can therefore be used as a proxy approach for the migration intentions. Over eight percent (8.4%) of the population in Bonaire is inclined to emigrate within 4 years out of the Netherlands Antilles. The map Intended Migration on page 26 displays the populati on in the neighborhoods in Bonaire, which is intended to migrate within 4 years. As it appears on the map, the highest percentages of emigration intension (19% or more) can be found in the neighborhood 206/Santa Barbara, The highest share of those that in tend to stay (95% or more) are found in the neighborhoods of Rincon, 203/Nawati Zuid, 205/Sabadeco, 305/Mexico, 506/Playa and 602/Lima. The intended overall emigration does not show a spatial correlation with the intended migration among the youth of the age group 18 24 years (see page 27). In 2001 almost sixteen percent (15.7%) of the age group 18 24 years intended to emigrate from Bonaire within 4 years. Spatially, the more inclined youth to migrate are concentrated in the neighborhood 507/Playa Pab ou (26% or more), while the stayers are concentrated in the neighborhoods 101/Rincon Noord, 301/Amboina, 601/Belnem, 602/Lima and 604/Punt Vierkant (less than 13 percent is intended to migrate within 4 years from Bonaire).

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29 2 Economic status of the population 2.1 General The economic status of the population in Bonaire will be described by the employed and unemployed population, the status in employment of the employed, acquired income and participation in the household income. This chapter will also deal with the economic burden of the economically active population. Someone is by definition employed if he or she is 15 years and older, has a job in the week prior to the census moment for four hours or more or he or she owns a company or b usiness 3 The following graph is a display of the economic status of the inhabitants of Bonaire in the age group 15 years and older throughout the census years. Graph 5 Graph 5 shows the development of the economic status of the population in the ag e group 15 years and older. Between 1960 and 1992 the participation of the age group 15 years and older on the labor market increased substantially and consequently also the proportion of the inactive population has diminished. Between 1992 and 2001 a some what balanced development is observed. 3 ILO definition

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30 The following map encompasses data of the Economic burden (see page 33). The economic burden is the total number of the population that is not working, divided by the total number of the population that is working, multiplied by hundred. The share of the population that is not working consists of the youth (0 14 years of age) and the elderly (65 years and older) and those pertaining to the age bracket of 15 64 years of age who are economically not active. Accordin 101/Rincon Noord and 205/Sabadeco. The rates in these neighborhoods amount to 166 or more, meaning than double the average for Bonaire (82.1). The neighborhoods 201/ Hato, 202/Na wati Noord, 304/Lagun and 508/Playa Pariba apparently do not register either any burden at all or a burden rate less than 84. Finally, the economic burden in each of these areas seems to be determined predominately by the demographic factors since the pers ons pertaining to the age categories 0 14 years of age and 65 years and older are denominated as persons that definitely are not participating in the process of labor. The average proportion of the age category 0 14 years of age is 26.7%, for the age c ategory 15 64 years of age 65.7% and for the age group 65 years and older 7.6% Considering these figures it can be stated that in 101/Rincon Noord and 205/Sabadeco, for instance, the high economic burden is by far influenced by the presence of the elderly. The proportion of the elderly surpasses the average for Bonaire in afore mentioned neighborhoods (13.9% respectively 11.1%), whereas the proportion for the category 0 14 years of age is either less or remains merely the same in the Rincon Noord and Saba deco (23.6% respectively 27.8%). The neighborhoods 201/Hato, 202/Nawati Noord, 304/Lagun and 508/Playa Pariba, on the contrary, register burden values substantially less than the average of Bonaire (less than 81), meaning in these areas there are more people working in comparison with those who are inactive. 2.2 The income of the employed population The census of 2001 registered 4,865 employed inhabitants. The following table gives an insight in the status in employment before saying anything about th e income. The status in employment of the population is defined in the publication Table 1: status in employment 1992 2001 Absolute % Absolute % Employer 171 3,9 143 2,9 S elf employed 185 4,2 358 7,4 Employee in permanent service 2,708 61,1 3,229 66,4 Employee in temporary service 657 14,8 416 8,6 Casual service or casual job 335 7,6 237 4,9 Hired on a contract 301 6,8 344 7,1 Others and unknown 71 1,6 66 1,4 T otal 4,430 100.0 4,865 100.0 Source: CBS, Census

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31 As it appears from table 1 on page 30, the employed population has increased since 1992 with 435 persons. The increment is due to the substantially growth in both the self employed population and the empl oyed population who works permanently. All other categories show either a slight decrease or a balance between the years when it comes to the absolute and relative figures. The map of Income of the employed (15 years and older) on page 34 displays subsequ ently the average gross income per individual, earned in 2001 and calculated in Antillean guilders. The average gross income of the employed population in Bonaire amounts to 2126 4 Antillean guilders. In 1992, the census registered an inflated income of 147 7 Antillean guilders. The neighborhoods with the highest average incomes (3822 guilders or more) are the neighborhoods 205/Sabadeco, 206/Santa Barbara and 304/Lagun. The neighborhoods with the lowest average income (less than 1780 guilders), on the con trary, are the neighborhoods 101/Rincon Noord, 301/Amboina, 305/Mexico and 606/Tera Kra. 2.3 Household income The average household income in January 2001 amounts to 3368 Antillean guilders. In 1992 an inflated income of 2417 guilders was registered, me aning a growth of almost nineteen percent (39.3%) in nine years. This growth is equivalent to 951 Antillean Guilders. The map on page 35 is a display of the average income per each household per neighborhood. As it appears on the map, the higher household incomes (4400 guilders or more) can be found in the neighborhoods 201/Hato, 202/Nawati Noord, 205/Sabadeco, 206/Santa Barbara, 304/Lagun, 405/Sabana, 601/Belnem, 602/Lima and 604/Punt Vierkant. Of this group the highest incomes (7200 guilders or more) are found in the neighborhoods 205/Sabadeco, 206/Santa Barbara, 304/Lagun and 604/Punt Vierkant. The neighborhood with the lowest household income (less than 2380 guilders per month) is the neighborhood 305/Mexico. It is also worth mentioning the neighborhoo ds of Rincon, 204/Nort Salia, 301/Amboina, Antriol, 403/Nikiboko and 606/Tera Kra as the neighborhoods with low household incomes varying between 2380 and 2860 per month. 4 Please, mind that the gross average income for 2001 is not corrected with inflation developments.

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32 2.4 Unemployment Nine percent (9.1%) of the labor force is unemployed. Compared to the year 1992 (8.3%), this is a slight increase of 0.8 percentage points. The highest unemployment rates (see map Unemployment rate on page 36) are registered in the neighborhoods 204/North Salia (13.1%) and 305/Mexico (21.4%), while the lowest unem ployment rates are found in the neighborhoods, 202/Nawati Noord (3.1%), 206/Santa Barbara (2.8%), 304/Lagun (0.0%), 508/Playa Pariba (3.0%), 601/Belnem (2.8%) and 602/Lima (0.0%). 2.4.1 Youth unemployment The youth unemployment rate is an important indic ator of the socio economic situation. At the spatial level the threshold value is 50, meaning that at least 50 persons need to form part of the labor force of the young. If this is not the case, an analysis at the spatial level is not possible. The censu s registered a youth unemployment rate of twenty two percent (22.2%) in Bonaire. If compared to the rate of 1992 (18.3%), it is clear that the level of unemployment increased in nine years with almost four percentage points (3.9). The youth unemployment r ate is at its highest in the neighborhoods 204/Nort Salia (27.6%) and 507/Playa Pabou (29.3%) and at its lowest in the neighborhood 403/Nikkiboko (12.0%) (See the map Youth unemployment on page 37). Also high are the rates for the neighborhoods of Rincon (23.9% respectively 25.5%), and Tera Kra (25.5%).

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39 3 Education 3.1 General The educational situation of the population in Bonaire will be discussed by focusing on the school participation rate, the level of education of the out of school populat ion, the dropout rate and the percentage of illiteracy. While interpreting Census figures one needs to keep in mind the fact that these indicators are based on definitions provided by international Census standards and are therefore not always comparable to indicators based on administrative sources. 3.2 School participation The following graph is a display of the age group, which is compulsory submitted to receive daytime education (6 15 yrs) as well as the higher age groups who are also receiving an y daytime education. Graph 6

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40 The average school participation for the age group 6 13 years of age does not show any changes between 1992 and 2001, according to the graph. The participation is more or less 100 percent. For the age group 14 years and older, an improvement in the school attendance can be observed. The biggest improvement seems to come from the young between 14 and 19 years of age, whereas an even spectacular growth can be observed for the age group 16 19 years of age, all this probab ly due to a growth in the vocational education establishments in Bonaire. The school attendance for the age category 15 19 years is subsequently shown in a map on page 43.The average attendance in 2001 was over sixty nine percent (69.3%) against sixty o ne percent in 1992. The highest participation rates are found in 201/Hato (100.0%), 205/Sabadeco (100.0%), 206/Santa Barbara (100.0%) and 304/Lagun Hill (100.0%), while the lowest rates can be found in 202/Nawati Noord (50.0%), 203/Nawati Zuid (57.1%) and 507/Playa Pabou (59.2%). 3.2.1 Participation rate of the age group 0 3 years This section deals with the participation rate of children between the age of 0 years and 3 years that are attending a play school or crche. On January 31, 2001 over forty f our percent (44.3%) of the children in the age group 0 3 years was attending a play school or day care center. In 1992, on the contrary, the census registered over thirty five percent (35.4%), meaning an increase in the participation in the number of child ren attending a day care center with almost nine percentage points (8.7). The attendance is the highest in the neighborhoods 203/Nawati Zuid (83.3%) and 304/Lagun Hill (100.0%), while the lowest attendance can be found in the neighborhood 604/Punt Vierka nt (0.0%) (See page 44). When comparing the School participation 0 3 years of age with the indicator Economic Burden not, it becomes pretty obvious that in neighborhoods where less burden is registered, meaning that are more people at work against the not working group, the school participation of the category 0 3 years of age is significantly high. This, probably due to working parents taking their child to child care fa cilities during working hours. 3.3 Level of education The average level of education 5 in 2001 is 38, meaning 38 persons with a high education per 100 persons with a low education. In 1992 the census registered an average level of 19 persons with a hig h education in relation to one hundred persons with a low education, which means a significant overall improvement in the average level of education in Bonaire. 5 The average level of education is comprised of persons of 15 years and older that have followed at l east a senior secondary education divided by persons that have no more than a junior secondary degree. The rate is subsequently multiplied by hundred, meaning an amount with a high education per hundred persons with a low education.

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41 The rate of proportion shows, subsequently a very strong deviation among the neighborhoods i n Bonaire (see map on page 45). The highest rates are found in the neighborhoods 205/Sabadeco, 602/Lima and 604/Punt Vierkant. In these neighborhoods one can find at least two and a half times the amount of highly educated people in comparison with the low er educated people. The lowest rates, on the contrary, are found in the neighborhoods of Rincon, 203/Nawati Zuid, 204/Nort Salia, the neighborhoods of Antriol, 301 Amboina, 305/Mexico, 403/Nikkiboko and 606/Tera Kra. In these neighborhoods thirty six or less than thirty six persons of the hundred persons with a low education are highly educated. 3.5 Drop out rate among the youth The drop out rate among the youth is the percentage of the population in the age category 15 24 years of age who did not fo llow any education or did follow at most the secondary education but did not finish this education, as part of the total population in this age category who currently is not attending any education. The drop out among the youth in the age group 15 24 year s in Bonaire is 42.6% In 1992 thirty three percent (33.2%) dropped out of school. A comparison between the two census years shows a considerable increase in the drop out rate with over nine percentage points (9.4). The highest rates in Bonaire are subseq uently found in 204/Nort Salia (59.3%), 305Mexico (50.0%), 507/Playa Pabou (50.0%) and 606/Tera Kra (55.2%), whereas the lowest rate can be found in 508/Playa Pariba (28.6%)(see map on page 46). Not all the neighborhoods could meet the criteria of at lea st 20 persons in the age category 15 24 years of age who currently are not attending any education. When trying to establish a possible spatial relationship between the Dropout Rate, Economic Burden and Unemployment Rate it becomes clear that the relat ionship cannot be stated for all neighborhoods. A possible explanation could perhaps found among demographic aspects of a neighborhood (the difference in proportion between the elderly and the young).

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47 4 Living accommodation and household situat ion 4.1 General Besides the personal form, the census also comprises of a living accommodation form According to the census a living accommodation can be a building, part of a complex or parts of a building, built with any kind of material and which is designed or made adequate for living purposes. Only one household can occupy a living accommodation, per definition. The census of 2001 offers also the possibility to identify the type of building for living purposes. In this case the building for livi ng purposes can be for instance a house, or an apartment. In this case the building is called a dwelling. The amount of dwellings, therefore, is less than the amount of registered living accommodations during the census. 4.2 Stock of dwellings, density of dwellings and the area for living purposes The stock of dwellings in Bonaire amounts to 3,608 inhabited dwellings, 1,042 uninhabited dwellings and 146 dwellings in construction, according to the census of 2001. The total stock amounts therefore to 4,820 private dwellings (excluding institutions). To calculate the density it is advisable to use dwellings, instead of living accommodations. The density of dwellings, therefore, is defined as the total stock of dwellings per area divided by the total square k ilometer surface per area. This will bring the average for Bonaire to 17 dwellings per square kilometer surface. Compared to Sint Maarten (357 dwellings/km) and Curaao (115 dwellings/km), it is worth mentioning that Bonaire is extremely thin built (17 dwellings/km). Most of the dwellings that are built can be found in the neighborhoods 303/Antriol Pariba and 403/Nikkiboko. In these neighborhoods the census registered 580 respectively 659 dwellings (see map total number of dwellings on page 55). The n eighborhoods 205/Sabadeco, Nawati, 304/Lagun Hill, 305/Mexico, 506/Playa, 602/Lima and 604/Punt Vierkant, on the contrary, are very thin built. These neighborhoods do not count more than 150 dwellings. The census collected also information about the amoun t of living space in a dwelling. The overall surface for living purposes implies all spaces for living purposes, excluding spaces for commercial goals, uncovered and open sidewalks, porches and garages. In Bonaire, the average amount of surface for living purposes is almost 126 square meters (125.7)(see map on page 56). Each member of a household has on average almost 42 square meters for his or her living.

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48 The biggest dwellings can be found in the neighborhoods 205/Sabadeco (378 m), 206/Santa Barbara ( 225 m) and 604/Punt Vierkant (209 m). The smallest dwellings, on the contrary, are found in the neighborhoods 101/Rincon Noord (100 m), 301/Amboina (84 m) and 302/Antriol Pabou (97 m). 4.3 Living accommodations, occupancy rate and size of households During the census of 2001, 3,677 inhabited living accommodations were registered. In 1992 the census registered 2,988 inhabited living accommodations, which means that the total amount of inhabited living accommodations has increased with 689. The occup ancy rate is calculated by the quotient between the total population and the total amount of inhabited living accommodations, as it is determined that one household can inhabit only one living accommodation. The average occupancy rate is in this case equal to the average size of a household. The average size of the households in Bonaire counts therefore almost three persons (2.91). The census of 1992, on the contrary, registered somewhat over the three persons per household (3.41), meaning a slight decrease in the average size of the households in Bonaire. The following map is a spatial display of the occupancy rate (see map on page 57). The size of the households is the largest in the neighborhood 301/Amboina (3.6) and the smallest in the neighborhood s 602/Lima (1.5) and 604/Punt Vierkant (1.8). 4.4 Adequacy of living accommodations The Central Bureau of Statistics distinguishes 3 different levels of the condition of a living A living accommodation is adequate whenever this accommodation does not need maintenance or needs some maintenance. In the case some maintenance is needed, this can be done under regular or daily circumstances. Subsequently, a living a ccommodation is in bad condition if this living accommodation displays one or more defects, which have to be repaired if the inhabitants want to be safely accommodated. Finally, a living accommodation is in very bad condition if this living accommodation is decaying and the inhabitants cannot be safely accommodated. The living accommodation is a threat to the health and well being of the inhabitants. The map on page 58 is a spatial display of the percentages of living accommodations either in bad condi tion or in very bad condition. These categories are merged together for this presentation. According to the census figures for the years 2001 and 1992, a diminution of living accommodations in bad condition can be noticed. The decrease of these living acc ommodations in bad condition amounts to almost two percentage points (1.8). At the moment almost four percent of the living accommodations (3.8%) in Bonaire is in bad condition.

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49 The percentage of living accommodations in bad condition are the highest in t he neighborhoods of Rincon (13.7% respectively 11.7%), 303/Antriol Pariba (10.9%) and 204/Nort Salia (9.6%), whereas the lowest percentages are found in 201/Hato (0.9%), 507/Playa Pabou (1.7%) and 601/Belnem (0.6%). According to the figures there were no registration of living accommodations in bad condition for the neighborhoods 205/Sabadeco, 206/Santa Barbara, 304/Lagun Hill, 301/Amboina, 602/Lima and 604/Punt Vierkant. 4.5 Right of ownership, the monthly rent paid and the ratio between rent and the hou sehold income In Bonaire, sixty three percent of the living accommodations are rented. In 1992 only fifty eight percent were rented, meaning a slight increase in the rented accommodations. The highest ratios of rented units (rented against property) are found in the neighborhoods 301/Amboina (185) 507/Playa Pabou (126) and 606/Tera Kra (112, while the lowest ratio can be found in 205/Sabadeco (12), 206/Santa Barbara (18) and 604/Punt Vierkant (20) (see map on page 60), meaning that most of the dwellings in Sabadeco, Santa Barbara and Punt Vierkant are property dwellings. The average monthly rent that is paid in 2001 amounts to 466 Antillean Guilders. In 1992 the inhabitants of the rented units paid on average an amount of 264 Antillean Guilders. If the latter is inflated by the average price index for the period 1992 2001 (119.2), a total amount of 315 Antillean Guilders was paid in the past. A comparison of the inflated figure for 1992 with the registered figure for 2001 shows an increase by almost fort y eight percent in nine years. On average this means an increment by 5 percent each year, which is acceptable, according to international standards. The neighborhoods where they pay the highest rents per month (1285 Antillean Guilders or more) are 206/San ta Barbara, 304/Lagun Hill and 604/Punt Vierkant. The lowest rents per month, on the contrary, are paid in the neighborhoods of Rincon, 301/Amboina and 606/Tera Kra (Less than 330 Antilliean Guilders (See map on page 61). t he average rent paid some relationship can be noticed. Again, the neighborhoods 206/Santa Barbara and 304/Lagun Hill seems to match the expectations, by showing a possible spatia l relationship between the high monthly rent that is paid and the high proportion of this rent of the household income. 4.6 Presence of basic and luxurious appliances in the living accommodations The Census defines basic appliances as appliances to pr ovide in the basic needs. The following appliances were investigated during the census: The presence of a cooking facility in the living accommodation The connectivity to a water grid or water supply by a cistern The presence of a shower facility

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50 The pr esence and connectivity of a toilet to a water net The presence of electricity If an appliance is said to be present in the living accommodation a score of 1 is awarded. The maximum score to be reached, in this case, is 5. The average score for the appl iances in Bonaire is 4.88, meaning a very high overall score when it comes to the presence of appliances in the living accommodations. The highest scores regarding the presence of the basic appliances in living accommodations are found in 201/Hato (4.97), 206/Santa Barbara (4.94), 301/Amboina (4.94), 302/Antriol Pabou (4.95), 506/Playa (4.96), 507/Playa Pabou (4.97), Playa Pariba (4.95), 601/Belnem (4.98) and 606/Tera Kra (4.94) (See the map on page 62). The lowest score, on the contrary, can be found i n 304/Lagun Hill (4.54). A very simple explanation for this occurrence could perhaps be that most of the dwellings in the neighborhood Lagun Hill are vacation dwellings. Luxurious appliances are defined as appliances that are not necessarily needed in a household. These appliances are: A television A video recorder A telephone One ore more mobile phones Cable or Satellite dish A refrigerator A washing machine A computer An internet connection A freezer A fax machine A household in possession of all thes e appliances is awarded a value score of eleven. In Bonaire, the average score for the possession of luxurious appliances is 6.60, meaning that the households possess at least more than a half of the amount of luxurious appliances that are investigated by the census. The highest scores are found in the neighborhoods 202/Nawati Noord, 205/Sabadeco, 206/Santa Barbara, 304/Lagun Hill and 601/Belnem (8 appliances or more), while the lowest score can be found in the neighborhood 305/Mexico (Less tan 5) (See t he map on page 63). 4.7 Composition of households A household could be comprised of one person living by its self (one person household) or more persons living together in informal domestic relations.

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51 A criterion for is that mutual agreements have been made for the purchase of food and other living necessities and that everyone is using the main room of the house (e.g. the living room) and/or the kitchen together. The Central Bureau of Statistics defines three main grou ps: A nuclear family, which can consist of either a couple with children, a couple without children or one parent with child. All these types can have one or more persons who are not related to the family living in. 2 or more Nuclear families living in o ne living accommodation with one or more persons who are not even related. No nuclear households consisting of either one person living alone or more persons living together that are not family related. A comparison of the results of 2001 with the result s of 1992 brings one to the conclusion that the overall composition of households in Bonaire changed considerably since 1992, showing moreover an inclination to non nuclear concubinations. In 2001 seventy one percent (70.8%) of the households consisted of one nuclear family and almost five percent (4.9%) of more nuclear families living in one living accommodation, whereas over twenty four percent (24.3%) were non nuclear concubinations or persons living alone. In 1992 the census registered respectively 72. 4%, 7.5% and 20.1% The following graph gives a more specific insight of the composition of the households in Bonaire. Graph 7

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52 As it appears form the graph, couples with children (38.2%) and the one person households (20.6%) are the largest proport ions of the composition of households.

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53 4.7.1 Female head of household One of the indicators that are often used by government experts and international experts when it comes to measuring poverty is the proportion of females as head of households, sinc e females as head tends to life a more troublesome life (most of the time, for example, influenced by separation and therefore left to take care of the under age children financially and emotionally by their own). In 2001 the census registered thirty per cent (30.2%) of female as head of household. Compared to 1992, the proportion increased with over three percentage points (3.4%). The proportion of male as head is therefore slightly curtailed The map on page 64 displays the highest percentages of femal e as head of household in the neighborhoods 102/Rincon Zuid (37.2%), 304/Lagun Hill (38.5%) and 606/Tera kra (40.2%), while the lowest percentages are found in the neighborhoods 202/Nawati Noord (12.5%), 202/Nawati Zuid (22.5%), 205/Sabadeco (15.8%), 206/ Santa Barbara (19.2%), 405/Sabana (21.6%) and 602/Lima (0%). 4.7.2 One person households International studies regarding demography have shown that people all over the world are living a more individual life. The tendency is that households are getting s maller. Subsequently the establishment studies 6 have shown that one person households, for example, establish them selves more often at the edges or in the center of cities where nightlife facilities and other attractions are concentrated. The process of households getting smaller started in Bonaire during the 80s. In 1981 the average size of household was 4.0 and in 1992 this amount dropped to 3.4 persons per household. In 2001 the drop still continued, resulting finally in an average of 2.9 persons per household. The map on page 65 gives an insight of the one person households. In 2001, the census registered almost twenty one percent (20.6%) of the one person households. In 1992 the share of the total number of households was sixteen percent (16.1%). The largest share of one person households can be found in the neighborhoods 506/Playa (31.3%), 602/Lima (50.0%) and 604/Punt Vierkant (41.7%). A significant percentage (24.2%) can also be found in the other neighborhood pertaining to the city of Kralendi jk, 508/Playa Pariba, 201/Hato (24.6%) and 601/Lima24.7%). These results could perhaps sustain the previous argumentation concerning establishment of one person households in or around the big cities, though establishment at shore locations could be explai ned by other living desires and social economic motives. The lowest proportions, on the other hand, are found in the neighborhoods 202/Nawati Noord (17.5%) 205/Sabadeco (5.3%), 206/Santa Barbara (7.7%), 301/Amboina (12.5%), 304/Lagun Hill (7.7%) and 507/ Playa Pabou (18.6%). 6 See e.g. Ministerie VROM/CBS Nederland, Woning Behoefte Onderzoek 1998, Kernpublicatie, September 1999, p. 50 51.

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54 4.7.3 One parent family households A household comprised of a mother or father living alone with her or his children is generally considered as a vulnerable household. The children must not be older than 18 years. A valid criterion is the fact that persons older than 18 years are entitled to lead an independent life and do not need parental guidance or support. Twelve percent of the households in Bonaire consist only of one parent with child. The census registered an average of alm ost nine percent (8.9%) in 1992. Compared with 2001 this means an increase of the one parent households. The highest proportions are found in the neighborhoods 302/Antriol Pabou (15.2%) and 606/Tera Kra (19.9%) whereas the lowest percentages are found in the neighborhoods 202/Nawati Noord (2.5%), 601/Belnem (4.1%), 602/Lima (0%) and Punt Vierkant (0%) see map on page 66).

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69 5 Socio economic overview This chapter deals with a socio economic overview that is based on eight chosen socio e conomic indicators by the Central Bureau of Statistics. The following indicators are used in this analysis to describe the living conditions in a neighborhood: The demographic burden The Economic Burden The relative health perception The individual income of the employed population The household income Unemployment rate The average level of education The proportion of the living accommodation in a bad condition Each indicator uses a scale between one and five. If the demographic burden, for instance, is t he highest, meaning a very unfavorable situation in the neighborhood, a score of five, which is the highest, is granted. For this matter, a map regarding the priority to deal with an area is constructed. This map is based on the total scores that each a rea has received by the analysis of the eight indicators per area. Subsequently, these total scores were transformed into priority scores. The map on page 69 finally shows the neighborhoods of Rincon, Mexico and Antriol Pariba as the neighborhoods that u rges great need of attention when it comes to solve the socio economic constraints. An in depth analysis of the indicators shows especially for Rincon Noord an emphasis on aspects like age dependency ratio, economic burden, income, level of education and the living accommodations in very bad shape. Rincon Zuid, on the contrary shows a very low level for the economic burden, while all of the other aspects score significantly high. The neighborhood Mexico, as on of the neighborhoods that deserves high prior ity when it comes to attending the socio economic problems in the neighborhood, seems to score very high on almost all aspects, regardless the health perception and the living accommodations in bad condition. Finally it has to be mentioned that the neighb orhood of Antriol Pariba scored also very high on the different components regarding the socio economic scope. Here, the scores for Health perception and unemployment could be considered at a normal level and therefore are of less influence in comparison w ith the scores for the remaining components. The investigation shows further that the neighborhoods 204/Nort Salia 302/Antriol Pabou, 301/Amboina, 403/Nikiboko and 606/Tera Kra are in lesser needs but still deserve special attention when it comes to soc io economic constraints. The neighborhoods 202/Nawati Noord 206/Santa Barbara 304/Lagun Hill 602/Lima and 604/Punt Vierkant, on the contrary, are in very low needs, when the living condition in these neighborhoods is thoroughly analyzed.

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71 Appendix Tables of indicators and variables Note: was not reached and therefore totals are calculated without those neighborhoods.

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73 Bonaire Neighborhood code Neighborhood Dependant pop. % 0 14 yrs. % 65+ yrs. Demographic burden Foreign born 101 Rincon Noord 265 23,5 14,0 60,1 38 102 Rincon Zuid 301 23,8 11,6 54,8 61 205 Sabadeco 21 27,8 11,1 63,6 4 1 201 Hato 103 26,3 4,1 43,6 143 202 Nawati Noord 31 25,2 3,7 40,8 44 203 Nawati zuid 39 21,7 12,2 51,3 20 204 Nort Salia 328 30,0 7,3 59,3 184 206 Santa Barbara 57 22,8 5,4 39,6 102 304 Lagun Hill 7 18,2 3,0 26,9 25 305 Bario Mexico 78 22,2 11,7 5 1,7 30 508 Playa Pariba 111 22,7 4,4 37,2 123 303 Antriol Pariba 495 26,3 8,3 52,9 364 302 Antriol Pabou 280 26,4 9,7 56,3 225 506 Playa 42 21,5 13,2 53,2 41 301 Amboina 236 34,9 2,7 60,2 101 403 Nikiboko 528 28,3 6,1 52,4 498 507 Playa Pabou 236 29 ,0 4,9 51,4 177 405 Sabana 121 17,6 9,7 37,3 91 606 Tera Kra 323 30,2 5,0 54,3 194 601 Belnem 94 29,0 5,1 51,6 139 602 Lima 0 0,0 0,0 0,0 18 604 Punt Vierkant 8 9,1 27,3 57,1 21 Total 3704 26,7 7,6 52,3 2680 7 Potential labor force refers to people that, according to their age (15 64 jrs), could perform labor activities Neighborhood code N eighborhood Population Male Female Sex ratio 0 14 yrs. 65+ yrs. Potential labor force 7 101 Rincon Noord 706 345 361 104,6 166 99 441 102 Rincon Zuid 850 406 444 109,4 202 99 549 205 Sabadeco 54 27 27 100,0 15 6 33 201 Hato 339 167 172 103,0 89 14 236 202 Nawati Noord 107 52 55 105,8 27 4 76 203 Nawati zuid 115 61 54 88,5 25 14 76 204 Nort Salia 881 456 425 93,2 264 64 553 206 Santa Barbara 202 94 108 114,9 46 11 144 304 Lagun Hill 33 16 17 106,3 6 1 26 305 Bario Mexico 230 125 105 84,0 51 27 151 508 Playa Pariba 409 205 204 99,5 93 18 298 303 Antriol Pariba 1430 737 693 94,0 376 119 936 302 Antriol Pabou 777 368 409 111,1 205 75 497 506 Playa 121 51 70 137,3 26 16 79 301 Amboina 628 299 329 110,0 219 17 392 403 Nikiboko 1535 766 769 100,4 43 4 94 1008 507 Playa Pabou 696 331 365 110,3 202 34 459 405 Sabana 444 218 226 103,7 78 43 324 606 Tera Kra 918 425 493 116,0 277 46 595 601 Belnem 276 132 144 109,1 80 14 182 602 Lima 18 12 6 50,0 0 0 18 604 Punt Vierkant 22 12 10 83,3 2 6 14 Tota l 10791 5305 5486 103,5 2883 821 7087

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74 Neighborhood code Neighborhood % Foreig n born Papiamentu speaking HH. Inhabited accommodations 101 Rincon Noord 5,4 228 241 102 Rincon Zuid 7,2 269 290 205 Sabadeco 75,9 3 19 201 Hato 42,2 68 134 202 Nawati Noord 41,1 20 40 203 Nawati zuid 17,4 30 40 204 Nort Salia 20,9 217 286 206 San ta Barbara 50,5 29 78 304 Lagun Hill 75,8 1 13 305 Bario Mexico 13,0 71 83 508 Playa Pariba 30,1 96 153 303 Antriol Pariba 25,5 358 473 302 Antriol Pabou 29,0 178 250 506 Playa 33,9 32 48 301 Amboina 16,1 142 176 403 Nikiboko 32,4 355 517 507 Play a Pabou 25,4 159 237 405 Sabana 20,5 126 167 606 Tera Kra 21,1 238 311 601 Belnem 50,4 39 97 602 Lima 100,0 0 12 604 Punt Vierkant 95,5 0 12 Total 24,8 2659 3677 Neighborhood code Neighborhood % Papiamentu speaking HH. Health perception Roman Cat holics 101 Rincon Noord 94,6 45,6 623 102 Rincon Zuid 92,8 41,1 775 205 Sabadeco 15,8 12,2 29 201 Hato 50,7 32,6 212 202 Nawati Noord 50,0 0,0 53 203 Nawati zuid 75,0 15,7 73 204 Nort Salia 75,9 30,9 652 206 Santa Barbara 37,2 20,0 116 304 Lagun Hill 7,7 73,3 15 305 Bario Mexico 85,5 19,4 188 508 Playa Pariba 62,7 33,7 311 303 Antriol Pariba 75,7 36,2 1139 302 Antriol Pabou 71,2 39,0 577 506 Playa 66,7 28,5 95 301 Amboina 80,7 31,7 498 403 Nikiboko 68,7 29,3 1167 507 Playa Pabou 67,1 24,7 525 405 Sabana 75,4 29,3 351 606 Tera Kra 76,5 44,6 734 601 Belnem 40,2 32,1 165 602 Lima 0,0 0,0 4 604 Punt Vierkant 0,0 24,4 12 Total 72,3 8314

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75 Neighborhood code Neighborhood % Roman Catholics Migration intentions % Migration intentions Mig ration intentions 18 24 yrs. 101 Rincon Noord 88,2 30 4,2 5 102 Rincon Zuid 91,2 25 2,9 8 205 Sabadeco 53,7 2 3,7 201 Hato 62,5 53 15,6 202 Nawati Noord 49,5 16 15,0 203 Nawati zuid 63,5 3 2,6 204 Nort Salia 74,0 63 7,2 9 206 Santa Barbara 57,4 47 23,3 304 Lagun Hill 45,5 4 12,1 305 Bario Mexico 81,7 2 0,9 508 Playa Pariba 76,0 45 11,0 5 303 Antriol Pariba 79,7 111 7,8 21 302 Antriol Pabou 74,3 79 10,2 11 506 Playa 78,5 5 4,1 301 Amboina 79,3 32 5,1 5 403 Nikiboko 76,0 149 9 ,7 18 507 Playa Pabou 75,4 77 11,1 14 405 Sabana 79,1 49 11,0 4 606 Tera Kra 80,0 82 8,9 13 601 Belnem 59,8 37 13,4 602 Lima 22,2 0 0,0 604 Punt Vierkant 54,5 4 18,2 Total 77,0 915 8,4 113 Neighborhood code Neighborhood Pop. 18 24 yrs. % Migration intentions 18 24 yrs. Popualtion with a job 101 Rincon Noord 61 8,2 265 102 Rincon Zuid 53 15,1 373 205 Sabadeco 10 201 Hato 193 202 Nawati Noord 62 203 Nawati zuid 50 204 Nort Salia 63 14,3 365 206 Santa Barbara 104 304 Lagun Hill 18 305 Bario Mexico 88 508 Playa Pariba 32 15,6 225 303 Antriol Pariba 109 19,3 637 302 Antriol Pabou 53 20,8 319 506 Playa 59 301 Amboina 50 10,0 274 403 Nikiboko 111 16,2 699 507 Playa Pabou 46 30,4 330 405 Sabana 25 16,0 224 606 Tera Kra 64 20,3 411 601 Belnem 139 602 Lima 9 604 Punt Vierkant 11 Total 667 15,7 4865

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76 Neighborhood code Neighborhood Pop. Without a job Economic burden Income of population with a job 101 Rincon Noord 440 166,0 1709,0 102 Rincon Zuid 477 127,9 1855,3 205 Sabadeco 44 440,0 7322,7 201 Hato 144 74,6 3483,0 202 Nawati Noord 45 72,6 3335,2 203 Nawati zuid 65 130,0 3007,0 204 Nort Salia 517 141,6 1854,4 206 Santa Barbara 98 94,2 4387,3 304 Lagun Hill 15 83,3 6281,9 305 Bario Mexico 142 161,4 1605,7 508 Playa Pariba 182 80,9 2746,8 303 Antriol Pariba 796 125,0 1830,7 302 Antriol Pabou 459 143,9 1854,5 506 Playa 61 103,4 2477,5 301 Amboina 354 129,2 1719,5 403 Nikiboko 837 119,7 1947,4 507 Playa Pabou 367 111,2 2443,9 405 Sabana 220 98,2 2768,0 606 Tera Kra 506 123,1 1775,3 601 Belnem 137 98,6 3807,8 602 Lima 9 100,0 6183,1 604 Punt Vierkant 11 100,0 5257,7 Total 5926 82,1 2126,4 Neighborhood code Neighborhood Household income Unemployed pop. Actual Lab or force Unemployment rate 15+ 101 Rincon Noord 2381,3 30 295 10,2 102 Rincon Zuid 2837,8 47 419 11,2 205 Sabadeco 8854,1 1 11 9,1 201 Hato 5264,0 10 205 4,9 202 Nawati Noord 5847,5 2 64 3,1 203 Nawati zuid 4225,4 4 54 7,4 204 Nort Salia 2694,6 55 419 13,1 206 Santa Barbara 7205,8 3 107 2,8 304 Lagun Hill 8620,8 0 18 0,0 305 Bario Mexico 1995,6 24 112 21,4 508 Playa Pariba 4304,2 7 234 3,0 303 Antriol Pariba 2812,9 72 708 10,2 302 Antriol Pabou 2590,3 38 357 10,6 506 Playa 3572,2 4 63 6,3 30 1 Amboina 2856,5 32 306 10,5 403 Nikiboko 2841,8 69 768 9,0 507 Playa Pabou 3635,6 29 358 8,1 405 Sabana 4407,7 13 237 5,5 606 Tera Kra 2611,2 41 452 9,1 601 Belnem 6560,9 4 143 2,8 602 Lima 5329,5 0 9 0,0 604 Punt Vierkant 9871,0 1 12 8,3 Total 3367,8 486 5351 9,1

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77 Neighborhood code Neighborhood 15 24 yrs. With a job Unemployed pop. 15 24 yrs. Labor force 15 24 yrs. 101 Rincon Noord 35 11 46 102 Rincon Zuid 35 12 47 205 Sabadeco 201 Hato 202 Nawati Noord 203 Nawati zuid 204 Nort Salia 42 16 58 206 Santa Barbara 304 Lagun Hill 305 Bario Mexico 508 Playa Pariba 303 Antriol Pariba 72 20 92 302 Antriol Pabou 506 Playa 301 Amboina 37 11 48 403 Nikiboko 81 11 92 507 Pla ya Pabou 29 12 41 405 Sabana 606 Tera Kra 36 12 48 601 Belnem 602 Lima 604 Punt Vierkant Total 367 105 472 Neighborhood code Neighborhood Unemployment rate 15 24 yrs. School attendance 15 19 yrs. Pop. 15 19 yrs. 101 Ri ncon Noord 23,9 32 48 102 Rincon Zuid 25,5 30 41 205 Sabadeco 2 2 201 Hato 10 10 202 Nawati Noord 1 2 203 Nawati zuid 4 7 204 Nort Salia 27,6 32 50 206 Santa Barbara 3 3 304 Lagun Hill 1 1 305 Bario Mexico 12 19 508 Playa Pariba 16 21 303 Antriol Pariba 21,7 55 79 302 Antriol Pabou 50 69 506 Playa 4 6 301 Amboina 22,9 38 60 403 Nikiboko 12,0 69 103 507 Playa Pabou 29,3 29 49 405 Sabana 27 32 606 Tera Kra 25,0 44 61 601 Belnem 5 7 602 Lima 604 Punt Vierkan t Total 22,2 464 670

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78 Neighborhood code Neighborhood School participation 15 19 yrs. School attendance 0 3 yrs. Pop. 0 3 yrs. 101 Rincon Noord 66,7 17 48 102 Rincon Zuid 73,2 21 53 205 Sabadeco 100,0 2 3 201 Hato 100,0 13 23 202 Nawati Noord 50,0 4 9 203 Nawati zuid 57,1 5 6 204 Nort Salia 64,0 27 57 206 Santa Barbara 100,0 5 11 304 Lagun Hill 100,0 1 1 305 Bario Mexico 63,2 3 14 508 Playa Pariba 76,2 10 17 303 Antriol Pariba 69,6 44 103 302 Antriol Pabou 72,5 19 51 506 Playa 66,7 5 8 301 Amboina 63,3 15 37 403 Nikiboko 67,0 56 115 507 Playa Pabou 59,2 19 43 405 Sabana 84,4 13 19 606 Tera Kra 72,1 27 71 601 Belnem 71,4 6 15 602 Lima 604 Punt Vierkant 0 1 Total 69,3 312 705 Neighborhood code Neighborhood School par ticipation 0 3 yrs. Low educated High educated High/100 low educated 101 Rincon Noord 35,4 450 55 12,2 102 Rincon Zuid 39,6 530 85 16,0 205 Sabadeco 66,7 7 31 442,9 201 Hato 56,5 95 146 153,7 202 Nawati Noord 44,4 30 49 163,3 203 Nawati zuid 83,3 66 19 28,8 204 Nort Salia 47,4 447 134 30,0 206 Santa Barbara 45,5 44 109 247,7 304 Lagun Hill 100,0 12 14 116,7 305 Bario Mexico 21,4 139 28 20,1 508 Playa Pariba 58,8 184 117 63,6 303 Antriol Pariba 42,7 810 190 23,5 302 Antriol Pabou 37,3 414 104 25,1 506 Playa 62,5 58 33 56,9 301 Amboina 40,5 307 62 20,2 403 Nikiboko 48,7 761 272 35,7 507 Playa Pabou 44,2 309 155 50,2 405 Sabana 68,4 219 120 54,8 606 Tera Kra 38,0 445 153 34,4 601 Belnem 40,0 68 124 182,4 602 Lima 4 14 350,0 604 Punt V ierkant 0,0 4 16 400,0 Total 44,3 5403 2030 37,6

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79 Neighborhood code Neighborhood No school attendance 15 24 yrs. Dropouts 15 24 yrs. % Dropouts 15 24 yrs. 101 Rincon Noord 55 22 40,0 102 Rincon Zuid 49 21 42,9 205 Sabadeco 201 Hato 202 Nawati Noord 203 Nawati zuid 204 Nort Salia 59 35 59,3 206 Santa Barbara 304 Lagun Hill 305 Bario Mexico 20 10 50,0 508 Playa Pariba 28 8 28,6 303 Antriol Pariba 102 42 41,2 302 Antriol Pabou 46 17 37,0 506 Playa 3 01 Amboina 48 18 37,5 403 Nikiboko 104 42 40,4 507 Playa Pabou 50 25 50,0 405 Sabana 606 Tera Kra 58 32 55,2 601 Belnem 602 Lima 604 Punt Vierkant Total 619 272 42,6 Neighborhood code Neighborhood Inhabited dwellings Uni nhabited dwellings Total dwellings 101 Rincon Noord 238 75 313 102 Rincon Zuid 290 96 386 205 Sabadeco 19 39 58 201 Hato 133 83 216 202 Nawati Noord 39 26 65 203 Nawati zuid 40 20 60 204 Nort Salia 281 73 354 206 Santa Barbara 77 44 121 304 Lagun Hill 13 36 49 305 Bario Mexico 82 37 119 508 Playa Pariba 151 53 204 303 Antriol Pariba 467 113 580 302 Antriol Pabou 243 75 318 506 Playa 44 22 66 301 Amboina 175 20 195 403 Nikiboko 508 151 659 507 Playa Pabou 216 77 293 405 Sabana 167 26 193 606 Tera Kra 305 58 363 601 Belnem 97 66 163 602 Lima 12 14 26 604 Punt Vierkant 11 8 19 Total 3608 1212 4820

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80 Neighborhood code Neighborhood % Uninhabited Dwellings Average sq. meters for living purposes Average size of HH. 101 Rincon Noord 24, 0 99,9 2,9 102 Rincon Zuid 24,9 103,7 2,9 205 Sabadeco 67,2 378,2 2,8 201 Hato 38,4 141,8 2,5 202 Nawati Noord 40,0 163,0 2,7 203 Nawati zuid 33,3 114,9 2,9 204 Nort Salia 20,6 103,6 3,1 206 Santa Barbara 36,4 225,2 2,6 304 Lagun Hill 73,5 141,2 2 ,5 305 Bario Mexico 31,1 100,2 2,8 508 Playa Pariba 26,0 148,0 2,7 303 Antriol Pariba 19,5 115,5 3,0 302 Antriol Pabou 23,6 97,2 3,1 506 Playa 33,3 176,7 2,5 301 Amboina 10,3 84,0 3,6 403 Nikiboko 22,9 100,8 3,0 507 Playa Pabou 26,3 114,8 2,9 405 Sabana 13,5 125,2 2,7 606 Tera Kra 16,0 100,4 3,0 601 Belnem 40,5 178,1 2,9 602 Lima 53,8 113,0 1,5 604 Punt Vierkant 42,1 209,6 1,8 Total 25,1 125,7 2,9 Neighborhood code Neighborhood Uninhabited in bad condition Inhabited in bad condition Tota l in bad condition 101 Rincon Noord 24 19 43 102 Rincon Zuid 24 21 45 205 Sabadeco 201 Hato 2 2 202 Nawati Noord 3 3 203 Nawati zuid 3 1 4 204 Nort Salia 21 13 34 206 Santa Barbara 304 Lagun Hill 305 Bario Mexico 8 8 508 Playa Pariba 6 6 12 303 Antriol Pariba 31 32 63 302 Antriol Pabou 13 12 25 506 Playa 3 3 301 Amboina 403 Nikiboko 24 20 44 507 Playa Pabou 1 4 5 405 Sabana 7 2 9 606 Tera Kra 8 11 19 601 Belnem 1 1 602 Lima 604 Punt Vierkant Total 179 141 320

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81 Neighborhood code Neighborhood % In bad condition Property owned Rented Rented/owned ratio 101 Rincon Noord 13,7 175 65 37,1 102 Rincon Zuid 11,7 213 76 35,7 205 Sabadeco 17 2 11,8 201 Hato 0,9 79 55 69,6 202 Nawati Noord 4,6 29 10 34,5 203 Nawati zuid 6,7 32 8 25,0 204 Nort Salia 9,6 179 106 59,2 206 Santa Barbara 66 12 18,2 304 Lagun Hill 10 3 30,0 305 Bario Mexico 6,7 54 28 51,9 508 Playa Pariba 5,9 79 74 93,7 303 Antriol Pariba 10,9 325 149 45,8 302 Antriol Pabou 7,9 163 87 53,4 506 Playa 4,5 33 15 45,5 301 Amboina 61 113 185,2 403 Nikiboko 6,7 289 228 78,9 507 Playa Pabou 1,7 105 132 125,7 405 Sabana 4,7 111 56 50,5 606 Tera Kra 5,2 146 164 112,3 601 Belnem 0,6 69 28 40,6 602 Lima 7 5 71,4 604 Punt Vierkant 10 2 20,0 Total 3,8 2252 1418 63,0 Neighborhood code Neighborhood Average rent Basic appl. Score Luxurious appl. Score Female Head 101 Rincon Noord 214,15 4,87 5,18 84 102 Rincon Zuid 241,04 4,90 5,43 108 205 Sabadeco 600,0 4,89 8,4 7 3 201 Hato 1161,0 4,97 7,32 31 202 Nawati Noord 1167,5 4,88 8,32 5 203 Nawati zuid 481,9 4,73 5,55 9 204 Nort Salia 324,4 4,83 5,27 81 206 Santa Barbara 1679,2 4,94 8,64 15 304 Lagun Hill 2166,7 4,54 8,38 5 305 Bario Mexico 512,5 4,82 4,66 28 50 8 Playa Pariba 737,2 4,95 7,16 36 303 Antriol Pariba 534,6 4,82 5,62 142 302 Antriol Pabou 492,1 4,95 5,46 88 506 Playa 463,5 4,96 6,06 14 301 Amboina 310,7 4,94 6,10 48 403 Nikiboko 451,1 4,84 5,67 143 507 Playa Pabou 465,3 4,97 6,32 78 405 Sabana 750,3 4,93 6,78 36 606 Tera Kra 279,7 4,94 5,81 127 601 Belnem 886,9 4,98 8,07 27 602 Lima 1045,0 4,92 7,17 604 Punt Vierkant 1600,0 4,92 7,75 4 Total 490,09 4,88 6,60 1112

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82 Neighborhood code Neighborhood % Female Head One pers. HH % One pers. HH Car possession 101 Rincon Noord 34,9 59 24,5 133 102 Rincon Zuid 37,2 62 21,4 178 205 Sabadeco 15,8 1 5,3 19 201 Hato 23,1 33 24,6 122 202 Nawati Noord 12,5 7 17,5 38 203 Nawati zuid 22,5 8 20,0 27 204 Nort Salia 28,3 58 20,3 198 206 Santa Barbar a 19,2 6 7,7 76 304 Lagun Hill 38,5 1 7,7 13 305 Bario Mexico 33,7 20 24,1 54 508 Playa Pariba 23,5 37 24,2 130 303 Antriol Pariba 30,0 90 19,0 325 302 Antriol Pabou 35,2 48 19,2 163 506 Playa 29,2 15 31,3 29 301 Amboina 27,3 22 12,5 130 403 Nikibo ko 27,7 112 21,7 363 507 Playa Pabou 32,9 44 18,6 186 405 Sabana 21,6 35 21,0 139 606 Tera Kra 40,8 64 20,6 214 601 Belnem 27,8 24 24,7 93 602 Lima 0,0 6 50,0 11 604 Punt Vierkant 33,3 5 41,7 12 Total 30,2 757 20,6 2653 Neighborhood code Neighbo rhood % Car possession One parent HH. % One parent HH. 101 Rincon Noord 55,2 29 12,0 102 Rincon Zuid 61,4 42 14,5 205 Sabadeco 100,0 1 5,3 201 Hato 91,0 7 5,2 202 Nawati Noord 95,0 1 2,5 203 Nawati zuid 67,5 2 5,0 204 Nort Salia 69,2 38 13,3 206 Santa Barbara 97,4 4 5,1 304 Lagun Hill 100,0 1 7,7 305 Bario Mexico 65,1 8 9,6 508 Playa Pariba 85,0 11 7,2 303 Antriol Pariba 68,7 60 12,7 302 Antriol Pabou 65,2 38 15,2 506 Playa 60,4 5 10,4 301 Amboina 73,9 23 13,1 403 Nikiboko 70,2 60 11,6 50 7 Playa Pabou 78,5 35 14,8 405 Sabana 83,2 9 5,4 606 Tera Kra 68,8 62 19,9 601 Belnem 95,9 4 4,1 602 Lima 91,7 0 0,0 604 Punt Vierkant 100,0 0 0,0 Total 72,0 440 12,0

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83 The following indicators in the table are used in this analysis to describe the living conditions in a neighborhood: The demographic burden The Economic Burden The relative health perception The individual income of the employed population The household income Unemployment rate The average level of education The proportion of the living accommodation in a bad condition Each indicator can assume a value between 1 and 5. The indicator are summed up to either 40 as one extreme and 8 as the other extreme. Finally, the following brackets where used : 8 16 Very Low 17 21 Low 22 26 Normal 27 32 Medium High 33 37 High Neighborhood code Neighborhood Socio economic score S ocio economic Priority 101 Rincon Noord 37 High 102 Rincon Zuid 34 High 205 Sabadeco 18 Low 201 Hato 18 Low 202 Nawati Noord 16 Very low 203 Nawati zuid 23 Normal 204 Nort Salia 32 Medium high 206 Santa Barbara 13 Very Low 304 Lagun Hill 15 Very Low 305 Bario Mexico 33 High 508 Playa Pariba 20 Low 303 Antriol Pariba 33 High 302 Antriol Pabou 32 Medium high 506 Playa 24 Normal 301 Amboina 29 Medium High 403 Nikiboko 28 Normal 507 Playa Pabou 22 Normal 405 Sabana 20 Low 606 Tera Kra 32 Me dium high 601 Belnem 17 Low 602 Lima 10 Very low 604 Punt Vierkant 16 Very low